Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 4 được lấy từ cuốn sách Actual Test 4 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 4 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

T-Rex: Hunter or Scavenger?
Jack Homer is an unlikely academic: his dyslexia is so bad that he has trouble reading a book. But he can read the imprint of life in sandstone or muddy shale across a distance of l00 years, and it is this gift that has made him curator of palaeontology at Montana State University’s Museum of the Rockies, the leader of a multi-million dollar scientific project to expose a complete slice of life 68 million years ago, and a consultant to Steven Spielberg and other Hollywood figures. His father had a sand and gravel quarry in Montana, and the young Horner was a collector of stones and bones, complete with notes about when and where he found them. “My father had owned a ranch when he was younger, in Montana,” he says. “He was enough of a geologist, being a sand and gravel man, to have a pretty good notion that they were dinosaur bones. So when I was eight years old he took me back to the area that had been his ranch, to where he had seen these big old bones. I picked up one. I am pretty sure it was the upper arm bone of a duckbilled dinosaur: it probably wasn’t a duckbilled dinosaur but closely related to that. I catalogued it, and took good care of it, and then later when I was in high school; excavated my first dinosaur skeleton. It obviously started earlier than eight and I literally have been driven ever since. I feel like I was born this way.” Horner spent seven years at university, but never graduated. “I have a learning disability, I would call it a learning difference - dyslexia, they call it - and I just had a terrible time with English and foreign languages and things like that. For a degree in geology or biology they required two years of a foreign language. There was no way in the world I could do that. In fact, I didn’t really pass English. So I couldn’t get a degree, I just wasn’t capable of it. But I took all of the courses required and I wrote a thesis and I did all sorts of things. So I have the education, I just don’t have the piece of paper,” he says. “We definitely know we are working on a very broad coastal plain with the streams and rivers bordered by conifers and hardwood plants, and the areas in between these rivers were probably fern-covered. There were no grasses at all: just ferns and bushes - an unusual landscape, kind of taking the south-eastern United States - Georgia, Florida - and mixing it with the moors of England and flattening it out,” he says. “Triceratops is very common: they are the cows of the Cretaceous, they are everywhere. Duckbilled dinosaurs are relatively common but not as common as triceratops and T-rex, for a meat-eating dinosaur, is very common. What we would consider the predator-prey ratio seems really off the scale. What is interesting is the little dromaeosaurs, the ones we know for sure were good predators, are haven’t been found.” That is why he sees T-rex not as the lion of the Cretaceous savannah but its vulture. “Look at the wildebeest that migrate in the Serengeti of Africa, a million individuals lose about 200,000 individuals in that annual migration. There is a tremendous carrion base there. And so you have hyenas, you have tremendous numbers of vultures that are scavenging, you don’t have all that many animals that are good predators. If T-rex was a top predator, especially considering how big it is, you’d expect it to be extremely rare, much rarer than the little dromaeosaurs, and yet they are everywhere, they are a dime a dozen,” he says. A 12-tonne T-rex is a lot of vulture, but he doesn’t see the monster as clumsy. He insisted his theory and finding, dedicated to further research upon it, of course, he would like to reevaluate if there is any case that additional evidence found or explanation raised by others in the future. He examined the leg bones of the T-rex, and compared the length of the thigh bone (upper leg), to the shin bone (lower leg). He found that the thigh bone was equal in length or slightly longer than the shin bone, and much thicker and heavier, which proves that the animal was built to be a slow walker rather than fast running. On the other hand, the fossils of fast hunting dinosaurs always showed that the shin bone was longer than the thigh bone. This same truth can be observed in many animals of today which are designed to run fast: the ostrich, cheetah, etc. He also studied the fossil teeth of the T-rex, and compared them with the teeth of the Velociraptor, and put the nail in the coffin of the “hunter T-rex theory”. The Velociraptor’s teeth which like stake knives: sharp, razor-edged, and capable of tearing through flesh with ease. The T-rex’s teeth were huge, sharp at their tip, but blunt, propelled by enormous jaw muscles, which enabled them to only crush bones. With the evidence presented in his documentary, Horner was able to prove that the idea of the T-rex as being a hunting and ruthless killing machine is probably just a myth. In light of the scientific clues he was able to unearth, the T-rex was a slow, sluggish animal which had poor vision, an extraordinary sense of smell, that often reached its “prey” after the real hunters were done feeding, and sometimes it had to scare the hunters away from a corpse. In order to do that, the T-rex had to have been ugly, nasty-looking, and stinky. This is actually true of nearly all scavenger animals. They are usually vile and nasty looking.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Jack Horner knew exactly the bone picked up in his father’s ranch belonged to a certain dinosaur when he was at the age of 8.
2
ack Horner achieved a distinctive degree in university when he graduated.
3
Jack Horner believes that the number of prey should be more than that of predators.
4
T-rex’s number is equivalent to the number of vulture in the Serengeti.
5
The hypothesis that T-rex is top predator conflicts with the fact of predator-prey ratio which Jack found.
6
Jack Horner refused to accept any other viewpoints about T-rex’s theory.
7
Jack Horner is the first man that discovered T-rex’s bones in the world.
Question 8 - 13
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Jack Horner found that T-rex’s 
8
 is shorter than the thigh bone,which demonstrated that it was actually a 
9
, unlike other swift animals such as ostrich or 
10
 that was built to 
11
. Another explanation support his idea is that T-rex’s teeth were rather 
12
, which only allowed T-rex to 
13
 hard bones instead of tearing flesh like Velociraptor.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
True
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 when I was eight years old he took me back to the area that had been his ranch , to where he had seen these big old bones. 

 2 I picked up one. 

 3 I am pretty sure it was the upper arm bone of a duckbilled dinosaur

=> 1 + 2 + 3 : Năm 8 tuổi, khi được bố dẫn đến xem 'big old bones' ở nông trại của ông, Jack Horner khá chắc chắn đó là 'bone of duckbilled dinosuar'

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2
False
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'university', ta dễ dàng locate được info



Sau đó ta thấy câu hỏi có sự đối lập rõ rệt với bài đọc:

achieved a distinctive degree in university when he graduated # never graduated

=> Thật ra ông ấy chưa từng tốt nghiệp

=> Chọn TRUE



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3
True
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Dựa vào 'prey' + 'predators' ta có thể tìm được thông tin 'prey-predators ratio', từ đó tìm được các ví dụ như Triceratops + T-rex



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 “Triceratops is very common : they are the cows of the Cretaceous , they are everywhere. 

 2 Duckbilled dinosaurs are relatively common but not as common as triceratops and T-rex 

 3 What we would consider the predator-prey ratio seems really off the scale.

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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: T-rex's number is equivalent to the number of vulture in the Serengeti.

=> Số lượng T-rex thì tương đồng với số lượng vulture

=> Trong bài ta có thể thấy có nhắc đến T-rex ví nó như vulture

=> Không có bất kì thông tin nào đề cập đến số lượng giữa chúng

>>> Ta cũng nhận thấy thông tin đánh lạc hướng 'a million' + '200,000', tuy nhiên đó là số liệu của wildebeest

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5
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

>>> Trước hết ta cần nhắc lại, theo predator-prey ratio của Jack thì số lượng prey vượt xa predator (xem lại câu 3)

Giờ ta simplify thông tin để dễ đọc hơn nhé:

If T-rex was a top predator , you’d expect it to be extremely rare , and yet they are everywhere , they are a dime a dozen

=> Nếu T-rex là top predator, thì nó phải hiếm (theo như predator-prey ratio của Jack)

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6
True
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Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 He insisted his theory and finding , dedicated to further research upon it , of course , he would like to reevaluate if there is any case that additional evidence found or explanation raised by others in the future.

>>> Ở câu này nếu hiểu được từ 'insisted' ta sẽ chọn được ngay đáp án.

>>> Insisted : to say firmly or demand forcefully, especially when others disagree with or oppose what you say

>>> Khẳng định cái gì đó, đặc biệt là khi những người khác không đồng tình/ phản đối

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7
Not Given
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Hiểu câu hỏi: Jack Horner is the first man that discovered T-rex’s bones in the world.

=> Jack là người đầu tiên phát hiện ra T-rex's bones trên thế giới

=> Tuy nhiên, bài đọc chỉ nói 'he examined the leg bones of the T-rex'

=> Chỉ cho biết ông ấy chỉ nghiên cứu xương T-rex, ta cũng không rõ là ông ấy có phải người đầu tiên phát hiện ra không

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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8
shin bone
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Hiểu câu hỏi: Jack Horner found that T-rex’s ____ is shorter than the thigh bone

=> Đáp án cần tìm là danh từ - cái gì đó ngắn hơn thigh bone

=> Tìm các thông tin so sánh trong bài





Phân tích info: thigh bone was equal in length or slightly longer than the shin bone

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9
slow walker
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 He found that the thigh bone was equal in length or slightly longer than the shin bone, and much thicker and heavier , which  proves that the animal was built to be a slow walker rather than fast running.

=> Ta dễ dàng thấy được việc 'thigh bone' dài hơn 'shin bone' cho thấy rằng T-rex là một 'slow walker' - thay vì 'fast running'

=> Answer: slow walker



>>>

Trong trường hợp bạn nào điền nhầm 'fast running' thì nhớ 'rather than' là thay vì -> ý là nó không chạy nhanh, và hơn nữa loại từ cũng không phù hợp. Nếu theo sau mạo từ 'a', thì phải là 'fast runner'

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10
cheetah
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào chỗ trống, ta biết đáp án cần điền là một động vật chạy nhanh, song song với ostrich

=> Quá dễ dàng để nhận ra đó là 'cheetah'

=> Answer: cheetah



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11
run fast
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Câu này cũng rất dễ, chỉ cần so sánh paraphrase là ta rút ra được đáp án:

swift animals that was built to ______ = animals which are designed to run fast

=> Answer: run fast



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12
blunt
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Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Vì 2 câu này liên quan tới nhau, nên ta phân tích cả 2 cùng lúc

Hiểu câu hỏi: T-rex’s teeth were rather (12) ____ which   only allowed T-rex to (13) _____ hard bones 

=> Đáp án là câu 12 là tính từ - một đặc tính của T-rex's teeth

=> Đáp án câu 13 là động từ - một hành động mà T-rex chỉ có thể làm với hard bones

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13
crush
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Vì 2 câu này liên quan tới nhau, nên ta phân tích cả 2 cùng lúc

Hiểu câu hỏi: T-rex’s teeth were rather (12) ____ which only allowed T-rex to (13) _____ hard bones 

=> Đáp án là câu 12 là tính từ - một đặc tính của T-rex's teeth

=> Đáp án câu 13 là động từ - một hành động mà T-rex chỉ có thể làm với hard bones

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Leaf-Cutting Ants and Fungus
A
A. The ants and their agriculture have been extensively studied over the years, but the recent research has uncovered intriguing new findings about the fungus they cultivate, how they domesticated it and how they cultivate it and preserve it from pathogens (病原体). For example, the fungus farms, which the ants were thought to keep free of pathogens, turn out to be vulnerable to a devastating mold, found nowhere else but in ants’ nests. To keep the mold in check, the ants long ago made a discovery that would do credit to any pharmaceutical laboratory.
B
B. Leaf-cutting ants and their fungus farms are a marvel of nature and perhaps the best known example of symbiosis, the mutual dependence of two species. The ants’ achievement is remarkable --the biologist Edward O. Wilson has called it “one of the major breakthroughs in animal evolution”--because it allows them to eat, courtesy of their mushroom’s digestive powers, the otherwise poisoned harvest of tropical forests whose leaves are laden with terpenoids, alkaloids and other chemicals designed to sicken browsers.
C
C. Fungus growing seems to have originated only once in evolution, because all gardening ants belong to a single tribe, the descendants of the first fungus farmer. There are more than 200 known species of the attine ant tribe, divided into 12 groups, or genera. The leaf-cutters use fresh vegetation; the other groups, known as the lower attines because their nests are smaller and their techniques more primitive, feed their gardens with detritus like dead leaves, insects and feces.
D
D. The leaf-cutters’ fungus was indeed descended from a single strain, propagated clonally, or just by budding, for at least 23 million years. But the lower attine ants used different varieties of the fungus, and in one case a quite separate species, the four biologists discovered. The pure strain of fungus grown by the leaf-cutters, it seemed to Mr. Currie, resembled the monocultures of various human crops, that are very productive for a while and then succumb to some disastrous pathogen, such as the Irish potato blight. Monocultures, which lack the genetic diversity to respond to changing environmental threats, are sitting ducks for parasites. Mr. Currie felt there had to be a parasite in the ant fungus system. But a century of ant research offered no support for the idea. Textbooks describe how leaf-cutter ants scrupulously weed their gardens of all foreign organisms. “People kept telling me, ‘You know the ants keep their gardens free of parasites, don’t you?’ “Mr. Currie said of his efforts to find a hidden interloper.
E
E. But after three years of sifting through attine ant gardens, Mr. Currie discovered they are far from free of infections. In last month’s issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, he and two colleagues, Dr. Mueller and David Mairoch, isolated several alien organisms, particularly a family of parasitic molds called Escovopsis.
F
F. Escovopsis turns out to be a highly virulent pathogen that can devastate a fungus garden in a couple of days. It blooms like a white cloud, with the garden dimly visible underneath. In a day or two the whole garden is enveloped. “Other ants won’t go near it and the ants associated with the garden just starve to death,” Dr. Rehner said. “They just seem to give up, except for those that have rescued their larvae. ”The deadly mold then turns greenish brown as it enters its spore-forming stage.
G
G. Evidently the ants usually manage to keep Escovopsis and other parasites under control. But with any lapse in control, or if the ants are removed, Escovopsis will quickly burst forth. Although new leaf-cutter gardens start off free of Escovopsis, within two years some 60 percent become infected. The discovery of Escovopsis’s role brings a new level of understanding to the evolution of the attine ants. “In the last decade, evolutionary biologists have been increasingly aware of the role of parasites as driving forces in evolution,”Dr. Schultz said. There is now a possible reason to explain why the lower attine species keep changing the variety of fungus in their mushroom gardens, and occasionally domesticating new ones—to stay one step ahead of the relentless Escovopsis.
H
H. Interestingly, Mr. Currie found that the leaf-cutters had in general fewer alien molds in their gardens than the lower attines, yet they had more Escovopsis infections. It seems that the price they pay for cultivating a pure variety of fungus is a higher risk from Escovopsis. But the leaf-cutters may have little alternative: they cultivate a special variety of fungus which, unlike those grown by the lower attines, produces nutritious swollen tips for the ants to eat.
I
I. Discovery of a third partner in the ant-fungus symbiosis raises the question of how the attine ants, especially the leaf-cutters, keep this dangerous interloper under control. Amazingly enough, Mr. Currie has again provided the answer. “People have known for a hundred years that ants have a whitish growth on the cuticle,”said Dr. Mueller, referring to the insects’ body surface. “People would say this is like a cuticular wax. But Cameron was the first one in a hundred years to put these things under a microscope. He saw it was not inert wax. It is alive.” Mr.Currie discovered a specialized patch on the ants’ cuticle that harbors a particular kind of bacterium, one well known to the pharmaceutical industry, because it is the source of half the antibiotics used in medicine. From each of 22 species of attine ant studied, Mr. Cameron and colleagues isolated a species of Streptomyces bacterium, they reported in Nature in April. The Streptomyces does not have much effect on ordinary laboratory funguses. But it is a potent poisoner of Escovopsis, inhibiting its growth and suppressing spore formation. It also stimulates growth of the ants’ mushroom fungus. The bacterium is carried by virgin queens when they leave to establish new nests, but is not found on male ants, playboys who take no responsibility in nest-making or gardening.
J
J. Because both the leaf-cutters and the lower attines use Streptomyces, the bacterium may have been part of their symbiosis for almost as long as the Escovopsis mold. If so, some Alexander Fleming of an ant discovered antibiotics millions of years before people did. Even now, the ants are accomplishing two feats beyond the powers of human technology. The leafcutters are growing a monocultural crop year after year without disaster, and they are using an antibiotic apparently so wisely and prudently that, unlike people, they are not provoking antibiotic resistance in the target pathogen.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 19
Use the information in the passage to match the options (listed A-C) with activities or features of ants below.
NB you may use any letter more than once
List of Findings
A
Leaf-cutting ants
B
Lower attines
C
Both leaft-cutting ants and lower attine ants
14
can use toxic leaves to feed fungus
15
build small nests and live with different foreign fungus
16
use dead vegetation to feed fungus
17
raise a single fungus which do not live with other variety of foreigners
18
normally keep a highly dangerous parasite under control
19
use special strategies to fight against Escovopsis
Question 20 - 24
The reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-J.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
20
Dangerous outcome of Escovopsis.
21
Risk of growing single fungus.
22
Comparison of features of two different nests for feeding gardens.
23
Discovery of significant achievements made by ants earlier than human.
24
Advantage of growing new breed of fungus in the ant farm.
Question 25 - 26
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
25
How does the author think of Currie’s opinion on the saying “ants keep their gardens free of parasites”?
A
his viewpoint was verified later.
B
his earlier study has sufficient evidence immediately.
C
there is no details mentioned in the article.
D
his opinion was proved to be wrong later on.
26
What did scientists find on the skin of ants under microscope?
A
some white cloud mold embed in their skin
B
that wax is all over their skin
C
a substance which is useful to humans
D
a substance which suppresses growth of fungus.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
A
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Leaf-cutting ants and their fungus farms are a marvel of nature

 2 The ants’ achievement is remarkable because it allows them to eat , courtesy of their mushroom’s digestive powers leaves laden with chemicals designed to sicken browsers.

=> Main idea: Leaf-cutting ants có thể ăn những cái lá có độc nhờ vào khả năng tiêu hóa của nấm

=> Nói cách khác, leaf-cutting ants dùng toxic leaves để feed fungus

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15
B
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Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Paragraph C: the other groups, known as the lower attines because their nests are smaller

Paragraph D: But the lower attines ants used different varieties of the fungus

=> Main idea: Lower attines có tổ nhỏ và dùng nhiều loại nấm khác nhau

=> Ứng với câu hỏi -> Chọn B



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16
B
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Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 The leaf-cutters use fresh vegetation ; the other groups, known as the lower attines , feed their gardens with detritus like dead leaves, insects and feces

=> Ta thấy leaf-cutters dùng fresh vegetation -> Từ đây cũng đã có thể loại đáp án A và C



=> Cụ thể hơn, lower attines nuôi nấm with dead leaves (=dead vegetation)

=> Chọn B



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17
A
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Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 The leaf-cutters’ fungus was indeed descended from a single strain 

 2 But  the lower attine ants used different varieties of the fungus

 7 Textbooks describe how leaf-cutter ants scrupulously weed their gardens of all foreign organisms

=> Câu 1 nói nấm của leaf-cutters được kế thừa từ 1 giống duy nhất -> leaf-cutters chỉ trồng duy nhất 1 loại nấm

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18
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Evidently the ants usually manage to keep Escovopsis and other parasites under control 

 3 Although new leaf-cutter gardens start off free of Escovopsis , within two years some 60 percent become infected. 

 7 There is now a possible reason to explain why the lower attine species keep changing the variety of fungus to stay one step ahead of the relentless Escovopsis.

=> Câu 1 cho biết kiến thường cố kiểm soát Escovopsis

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19
C
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Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Because both the leaf-cutters and the lower attines use Streptomyces

=> Cả leaf-cutters và lower attines dùng Streptomyces (special strategies)

=> Chọn C



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20
F
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Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

'dangerous outcome' -> tìm ví dụ minh chứng cho các tác động xấu của Escovopsis

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21
D
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Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

'Risk of growing single fungus' -> Nghĩ về các tác hại/ hạn chế của việc chỉ trồng 1 loại nấm,

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22
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

'Comparison' -> Tìm các hình ảnh so sánh giữa 2 loại tổ, chú ý tới các tính từ so sánh hơn

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23
H
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Giải thích chi tiết

Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

'Discovery of significant achievements' -> nghĩ về một sản phẩm nào đó được tìm ra bởi kiến

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24
G
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Đối với dạng Matching Information này bạn nên để đến cuối khi đã nắm được đại ý của bài đọc rồi hẵng làm nhé

=> Như vậy sẽ tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn



Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

'Advantage' -> tìm các từ chỉ lợi thế

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25
A
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Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Paragraph D:

 1 Mr. Currie felt there had to be a parasite in the ant fungus system.

 2 But a century of ant research offered no support for the idea.

 3 Textbooks describe how leaf-cutter ants scrupulously weed their gardens of all foreign organisms.

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26
C
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Hiểu câu hỏi: What did scientists find on the skin of ants under microscope?

=> Các nhà khoa học tìm thấy cái gì trên da của kiến dưới kính hiển vi

>>> Chú ý trong bài họ sẽ không dùng từ 'skin', mà dùng 'cuticle' - từ này đã được giải thích là 'insects' body surface' -> Ta hiểu là skin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Honey Bees in Trouble
Can native pollinators fill the gap?
A
A. Recently, ominous headlines have described a mysterious ailment, colony collapse disorder (CCD), that is wiping out the honeybees that pollinate many crops. Without honeybees, the story goes, fields will be sterile, economies will collapse, and food will be scarce.
B
B. But what few accounts acknowledge is that what’s at risk is not itself a natural state of affairs. For one thing, in the United States, where CCD was first reported and has had its greatest impacts, honeybees are not a native species. Pollination in modern agriculture isn’t alchemy, it’s industry. The total number of hives involved in the U.S. pollination industry has been somewhere between 2.5 million and 3 million in recent years. Meanwhile, American farmers began using large quantities of organophosphate insecticides, planted large-scale crop monocultures, and adopted “clean farming” practices that scrubbed native vegetation from field margins and roadsides. These practices killed many native bees outright—they’re as vulnerable to insecticides as any agricultural pest—and made the agricultural landscape inhospitable to those that remained. Concern about these practices and their effects on pollinators isn’t new—in her 1962 ecological alarm cry Silent Spring, Rachel Carson warned of a ‘Fruitless Fall’ that could result from the disappearance of insect pollinators.
C
C. If that ‘Fruitless Fall, has not—yet—occurred, it may be largely thanks to the honeybee, which farmers turned to as the ability of wild pollinators to service crops declined. The honeybee has been semi-domesticated since the time of the ancient Egyptians, but it wasn’t just familiarity that determined this choice: the bees’ biology is in many ways suited to the kind of agricultural system that was emerging. For example, honeybee hives can be closed up and moved out of the way when pesticides are applied to a field. The bees are generalist pollinators, so they can be used to pollinate many different crops. And although they are not the most efficient pollinator of every crop, honeybees have strength in numbers, with 20,000 to 100,000 bees living in a single hive. “Without a doubt, if there was one bee you wanted for agriculture, it would be the honeybee, “says Jim Cane, of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The honeybee, in other words, has become a crucial cog in the modern system of industrial agriculture. That system delivers more food, and more kinds of it, to more places, more cheaply than ever before. But that system is also vulnerable, because making a farm field into the photosynthetic equivalent of a factory floor, and pollination into a series of continent-long assembly lines, also leaches out some of the resilience characteristic of natural ecosystems.
D
D. Breno Freitas, an agronomist, pointed out that in nature such a high degree of specialization usually is a very dangerous game: it works well while all the rest is in equilibrium, but runs quickly to extinction at the least disbalance. In effect, by developing an agricultural system that is heavily reliant on a single pollinator species, we humans have become riskily overspecialized. And when the human-honeybee relationship is disrupted, as it has been by colony collapse disorder, the vulnerability of that agricultural system begins to become clear.
E
E. In fact, a few wild bees are already being successfully managed for crop pollination. “The problem is trying to provide native bees in adequate numbers on a reliable basis in a fairly short number of years in order to service the crop,” Jim Cane says. “You’re talking millions of flowers per acre in a two-to three-week time frame, or less, for a lot of crops.” On the other hand, native bees can be much more efficient pollinators of certain crops than honeybees, so you don’t need as many to do the job. For example, about 750 blue orchard bees (Osmia lignaria) can pollinate a hectare of apples or almonds, a task that would require roughly 50,000 to 150,000 honeybees. There are bee tinkerers engaged in similar work in many comers of the world. In Brazil, Breno Freitas has found that Centris tarsata, the native pollinator of wild cashew, can survive in commercial cashew orchards if growers provide a source of floral oils, such as by interplanting their cashew trees with Caribbean cherry.
F
F. In certain places, native bees may already be doing more than they’re getting credit for. Ecologist Rachael Winfree recently led a team that looked at pollination of four summer crops (tomato, watermelon, peppers, and muskmelon) at 29 farms in the region of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Winfree’s team identified 54 species of wild bees that visited these crops, and found that wild bees were the most important pollinators in the system: even though managed honeybees were present on many of the farms, wild bees were responsible for 62 percent of flower visits in the study. In another study focusing specifically on watermelon, Winfree and her colleagues calculated that native bees alone could provide sufficient pollination at 90 percent of the 23 farms studied. By contrast, honeybees alone could provide sufficient pollination at only 78 percent of farms.
G
G. “The region I work in is not typical of the way most food is produced,” Winfree admits. In the Delaware Valley, most farms and farm fields are relatively small, each fanner typically grows a variety of crops, and farms are interspersed with suburbs and other types of land use which means there are opportunities for homeowners to get involved in bee conservation, too. The landscape is a bee-friendly patchwork that provides a variety of nesting habitat and floral resources distributed among different kinds of crops, weedy field margins, fallow fields, suburban neighborhoods, and semi natural habitat like old woodlots, all at a relatively small scale. In other words, ’’pollinator-friendly” farming practices would not only aid pollination of agricultural crops, but also serve as a key element in the over all conservation strategy for wild pollinators, and often aid other wild species as well.
H
H. Of course, not all farmers will be able to implement all of these practices. And researchers are suggesting a shift to a kind of polyglot agricultural system. For some small-scale farms, native bees may indeed be all that’s needed. For larger operations, a suite of managed bees—with honeybees filling the generalist role and other, native bees pollinating specific crops—could be augmented by free pollination services from resurgent wild pollinators. In other words, they’re saying, we still have an opportunity to replace a risky monoculture with something diverse, resilient, and robust.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 30
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the Reading Passage?
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
27
In the United States, farmers use honeybees in a large scale over the past few years.
28
Cleaning farming practices would be harmful to farmers.
29
The blue orchard bee is the most efficient pollinator among native bees for every crop.
30
It is beneficial to other local creatures to protect native bees.
Question 31 - 35
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
31
The example of the ‘Fruitless Fall' underlines the writer’s point about
A
needs for using pesticides.
B
impacts of losing insect pollinators.
C
vulnerabilities of native bees.
D
benefits in building more pollination industries.
32
Why can honeybees adapt to the modem agricultural system?
A
The honeybees can pollinated more crops efficiently
B
The bees are semi-domesticated since ancient times.
C
Honeybee hives can be protected away from pesticides.
D
The ability of wild pollinators using to serve crops declines.
33
The writer mentions factories and assembly lines to illustrate
A
one drawback of the industrialised agricultural system.
B
a low cost in modem agriculture.
C
the role of honeybees in pollination.
D
what a high yield of industrial agriculture.
34
In the 6th paragraph, Wlnfree’s experiment proves that
A
honeybee can pollinate various crops.
B
there are many types of wild bees as the pollinators.
C
the wild bees can increase the yield to a higher percentage
D
wild bees work more efficiently as a pollinator than honey bees in certain cases
35
What does the writer want to suggest in the last paragraph?
A
the importance of honey bees in pollination
B
adoption of different bees in various sizes of agricultural system
C
the comparison between the intensive and the rarefied agricultural system
D
the reason why farmers can rely on native pollinators
Question 36 - 40
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
List of Endings
A
native pollinators can survive when a specific plant is supplied.
B
it would cause severe consequences both to commerce and agriculture.
C
honey bees cannot be bred.
D
some agricultural landscapes are favorable in supporting wild bees.
E
a large scale of honey bees are needed to pollinate.
F
an agricultural system is fragile when relying on a single pollinator
Headline of colony collapse disorder states that
36
Viewpoints of Freitas manifest that
37
Examples of blue orchard bees have shown that
38
Centris tarsata is mentioned to exemplify that
39
One finding of the research in Delaware Valley is that
40

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: In the United States , farmers   use honeybees in a large scale over the past few years

=> Famers dùng honeybees trên diện rộng

Phân tích info: The total number of hives involved in the U.S. pollination industry has been somewhere between 2.5 million and 3 millionin recent years.

=> Tổ ong được dùng trong công nghiệp -> Mà dùng trong công nghiệp là dùng trên diện rộng

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28
Not Given
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Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Cleaning farming practices would be harmful to farmers

=> Cleaning farming practices có hại cho farmers

=> Dựa vào cụm 'clearning farming practices', ta khoanh vùng được thông tin





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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29
No
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 native bees can be much more efficient pollinators of certain crops than honeybees

=> Native bees có thể là efficient pollinators, nhưng chỉ đối với những loại cây trồng nhất định

=> Không phải là 'every crop' như câu hỏi nói

=> Chọn NO



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30
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: It is beneficial to other local creatures to protect native bees

=> Bảo vệ native bees cũng có lợi cho các động vật khác

Phân tích info: ’pollinator-friendly” farming practices would not only aid pollination of agricultural crops , but also  serve as a key element in the over all conservation strategy for wild pollinators , and often aid other wild species as well.

=> Vậy việc bảo vệ native bees - còn đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc bảo tồn wild pollinators hỗ trợ các loài khác

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31
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Rachel Carson warned of a ‘Fruitless Fall’ that could result from the disappearance of insect pollinators.

=> Sự biến mất của insect pollinators - có thể dẫn đến - 'Fruitless Fall'

=> Tác giả nhắc đến Fruitless Fall để nhấn mạnh các hậu quả khi không có insect pollinators

=> Chọn đáp án B - impacts of losing insect pollinators



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32
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Why can honeybees adapt to the modern agricultural system?

=> Tại sao honeybees có thể thích nghi với hệ thống nông nghiệp hiện đại

>>> Ta thấy câu 1 nói loài ong này phù hợp với agricultural system hiện nay và sau đó thấy 'For example' -> Biết câu 2 cho biết nguyên nhân -> Tập trung vào đó



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33
A
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Giải thích chi tiết

Dựa vào cụm 'factories and assembly lines' ta dễ dàng locate được info

>>> Ở đây nếu bạn nào có vốn từ tốt, hiểu 'vulnerable''leaches out' thì có thể dễ dàng đưa ra đáp án





Tuy nhiên, trong trường hợp bạn không biết, thì ta có thể áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc connection giữa 2 câu:

 1 That system delivers more food , and more kinds of it, to more places , more cheaply than ever before.

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34
D
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dung Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Winfree’s team found that wild bees were the most important pollinators in the system

=> Sau thí nghiệm, Winfree nhận ra - wild bees - là pollinators quan trọng nhất

=> Ứng với đáp án D - wild beeswork more efficiently as a pollinator than honey bees in certain cases



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35
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 they’re saying, we still have an opportunity to replace a risky monoculture with something diverse, resilient, and robust.

=> Ở đây ta có tiền tố 'mono' mang nghĩa là 'đơn/một' + 'culture' là 'sự nuôi/trồng' -> monoculture ý nói chỉ dùng 1 loại ong

=> Có cơ hội thay thế monoculture với cái gì đó đa dạng hơn (ta chỉ cần hiểu từ 'diverse' là đủ)

=> Tác giả đang suggest sử dụng different bees chứ không chỉ dùng 1 loại

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36
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào từ 'headlines' + cụm 'colony collapse disorder', ta dễ dàng locate được thông tin



Áp dụng đọc connection với DOL's Linearthinking:

 1 ominous headlines have described a mysterious ailment , colony collapse disorder (CCD) , that is wiping out the honeybees that pollinate many crops. 

 2 Without honeybees, fields will be sterile , economies will collapse, and food will be scarce. 

=> 1 + 2 : Colony collapse disorder sẽ quét sạch honeybees -> Dẫn đến các hậu quả nghiêm trọng về agriculture (fields will be sterile) + commerce (economies will collapse, and food will be scarce)

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37
F
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào tên riêng 'Freitas', ta có thể nhanh chóng khoanh vùng thông tin

>>> Câu này thật ra khá dễ tìm đáp án, khi tìm thấy tên Freitas, ta dễ dàng tìm thấy cụm paraphrase 'an agricultural system that is heavily reliant on a single pollinator species' -> Từ đó suy ra được đáp án F

>>> Tuy nhiên muốn hiểu rõ hơnbiết được thêm từ mới thì thì ta có thể áp dụng Linearthinking để lấy main idea nhé







Áp dụng đọc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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38
E
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

For example , about 750 blue orchard bees can pollinate a hectare of apples or almonds , a task that would require roughly 50,000 to 150,000 honeybees.

=> Khoảng 750 blue orchard bees - có thể pollinate một hecta apples/ almonds - nhưng phải 50,000 - 150,000 honeybees thì mới làm được việc này

=> Các con số đã phản ánh rằng phải cần nhiều honeybees hơn để có thể thụ phấn

=> Chọn E - a large scale of honey bees are needed to pollinate



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39
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Centris tarsata , the native pollinator of wild cashew can survive if growers provide a source of floral oils , such as by interplanting their cashew trees with Caribbean cherry.

=> Centris là 'pollinator' của cây 'wild cashew' - và nó có thể survive nếu được cung cấp floral oils từ cây Caribbean cherry

=> Chọn A - native pollinators can survive when a specific plant is supplied



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40
D
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 mô tả landscapes của Delaware Valley

 2 The landscape is a bee-friendly patchwork that provides a variety of nesting habitat and floral resources

 3 ’’pollinator-friendly” farming practices also serve as a key element in the over all conservation strategy for wild pollinators

=> 1 + 2 + 3 : landscapes ở Delaware Valley này môi trường thân thiện với loài ong - góp phần bảo tồn wild bees

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