Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Online Test Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 3 được lấy từ cuốn sách Actual Test 4 với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking, kèm answer key và list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc.
Actual Test 4 - Reading Test 3 With Practice Test, Answers And Explanation

Passage 1

📖 Bài đọc passage 1

Voyage of Going: beyond the blue line 2
A
A. One feels a certain sympathy for Captain James Cook on the day in 1778 that he "discovered" Hawaii. Then on his third expedition to the Pacific, the British navigator had explored scores of islands across the breadth of the sea, from lush New Zealand to the lonely wastes of Easter Island. This latest voyage had taken him thousands of miles north from the Society Islands to an archipelago so remote that even the old Polynesians back on Tahiti knew nothing about it. Imagine Cook's surprise, then, when the natives of Hawaii came paddling out in their canoes and greeted him in a familiar tongue, one he had heard on virtually every mote of inhabited land he had visited. Marveling at the ubiquity of this Pacific language and culture, he later wondered in his journal: "How shall we account for this Nation spreading itself so far over this Vast ocean?"
B
B. Answers have been slow in coming. But now a startling archaeological find on the island of Efate, in the Pacific nation of Vanuatu, has revealed an ancient seafaring people, the distant ancestors of today's Polynesians, taking their first steps into the unknown. The discoveries there have also opened a window into the shadowy world of those early voyagers. At the same time, other pieces of this human puzzle are turning up in unlikely places. Climate data gleaned from slow-growing corals around the Pacific and from sediments in alpine lakes in South America may help explain how, more than a thousand years later, a second wave of seafarers beat their way across the entire Pacific.
C
C. "What we have is a first- or second-generation site containing the graves of some of the Pacific's first explorers," says Spriggs, professor of archaeology at the Australian National University and co-leader of an international team excavating the site. It came to light only by luck. A backhoe operator, digging up topsoil on the grounds of a derelict coconut plantation, scraped open a grave - the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever found in the Pacific islands, and it harbors the bones of an ancient people archaeologists call the Lapita, a label that derives from a beach in New Caledonia where a landmark cache of their pottery was found in the 1950s. They were daring blue-water adventurers who roved the sea not just as explorers but also as pioneers, bringing along everything they would need to build new lives - their families and livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools.
D
D. Within the span of a few centuries the Lapita stretched the boundaries of their world from the jungle-clad volcanoes of Papua New Guinea to the loneliest coral outliers of Tonga, at least 2,000 miles eastward in the Pacific. Along the way they explored millions of square miles of unknown sea, discovering and colonizing scores of tropical islands never before seen by human eyes: Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa.
E
E. What little is known or surmised about them has been pieced together from fragments of pottery, animal bones, obsidian flakes, and such oblique sources as comparative linguistics and geochemistry. Although their voyages can be traced back to the northern islands of Papua New Guinea, their language - variants of which are still spoken across the Pacific - came from Taiwan. And their peculiar style of pottery decoration, created by pressing a carved stamp into the clay, probably had its roots in the northern Philippines. With the discovery of the Lapita cemetery on Efate, the volume of data available to researchers has expanded dramatically. The bones of at least 62 individuals have been uncovered so far - including old men, young women, even babies - and more skeletons are known to be in the ground. Archaeologists were also thrilled to discover six complete Lapita pots; before this, only four had ever been found. Other discoveries included a burial urn with modeled birds arranged on the rim as though peering down at the human bones sealed inside. It's an important find, Spriggs says, for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita. "It would be hard for anyone to argue that these aren't Lapita when you have human bones enshrined inside what is unmistakably a Lapita urn."
F
F. Several lines of evidence also undergird Spriggs's conclusion that this was a community of pioneers making their first voyages into the remote reaches of Oceania. For one thing, the radiocarbon dating of bones and charcoal places them early in the Lapita expansion. For another, the chemical makeup of the obsidian flakes littering the site indicates that the rock wasn't local; instead it was imported from a large island in Papua New Guinea's Bismarck Archipelago, the springboard for the Lapita's thrust into the Pacific. A particularly intriguing clue comes from chemical tests on the teeth of several skeletons. DNA teased from these ancient bones may also help answer one of the most puzzling questions in Pacific anthropology: Did all Pacific islanders spring from one source or many? Was there only one outward migration from a single point in Asia, or several from different points? "This represents the best opportunity we've had yet," says Spriggs, "to find out who the Lapita actually were, where they came from, and who their closest descendants are today."
G
G. There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: How did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over? No one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal how the canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights, for they segue into myth long before they reach as far back in time as the Lapita. "All we can say for certain is that the Lapita had canoes that were capable of ocean voyages, and they had the ability to sail them," says Geoff Irwin, a professor of archaeology at the University of Auckland and an avid yachtsman. Those sailing skills, he says, were developed and passed down over thousands of years by earlier mariners who worked their way through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific making short crossings to islands within sight of each other. Reaching Fiji, as they did a century or so later, meant crossing more than 500 miles of ocean, pressing on day after day into the great blue void of the Pacific. What gave them the courage to launch out on such a risky voyage?
H
H. The Lapita's thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing trade winds, Irwin notes. Those nagging headwinds, he argues, may have been the key to their success. "They could sail out for days into the unknown and reconnoiter, secure in the knowledge that if they didn't find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride home on the trade winds. It's what made the whole thing work." Once out there, skilled seafarers would detect abundant leads to follow to land: seabirds and turtles, coconuts and twigs carried out to sea by the tides, and the afternoon pileup of clouds on the horizon that often betokens an island in the distance. Some islands may have broadcast their presence with far less subtlety than a cloud bank. Some of the most violent eruptions anywhere on the planet during the past 10,000 years occurred in Melanesia, which sits nervously in one of the most explosive volcanic regions on Earth. Even less spectacular eruptions would have sent plumes of smoke billowing into the stratosphere and rained ash for hundreds of miles. It's possible that the Lapita saw these signs of distant islands and later sailed off in their direction, knowing they would find land. For returning explorers, successful or not, the geography of their own archipelagoes provided a safety net to keep them from overshooting their home ports and sailing off into eternity.
I
I. However they did it, the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them. Ahead lay the vast emptiness of the central Pacific, and perhaps they were too thinly stretched to venture farther. They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total, and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds of islands - more than 300 in Fiji alone. Still, more than a millennium would pass before the Lapita's descendants, a people we now call the Polynesians, struck out in search of new territory.

❓ Câu hỏi passage 1

Question 1 - 7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1
Captain cook once expected the Hawaii might speak another language of people from other pacific islands.
2
Captain cook depicted number of cultural aspects of Polynesians in his journal.
3
Professor Spriggs and his research team went to the Efate to try to find the site of ancient cemetery.
4
The Lapita completed a journey of around 2,000 miles in a period less than a centenary.
5
The Lapita were the first inhabitants in many pacific islands.
6
The unknown pots discovered in Efate had once been used for cooking.
7
The urn buried in Efate site was plain as it was without any decoration.
Question 8 - 10
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Scientific Evident found in Efate site
Tests show the human remains and the charcoal found in the buried um are from the start of the Lapita period. Yet the 
8
covering many of the Efate site did not come from that area. Then examinations carried out on the 
9
discovered at Efate site reveal that not everyone buried there was a native living in the area. In fact, DNA could identify the Lapita's nearest  present-days 
10
.
Question 11 - 13
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
11
What did the Lapita travel in when they crossed the oceans?
12
In Irwins's view, what would the Latipa have relied on to bring them fast back to the base?
13
Which sea creatures would have been an indication to the Lapita of where to find land?

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 1

1
Yes
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Captain Cook once expected the Hawaii might speak another language of people from other pacific islands 

=> Cook từng hi vọng người Hawaii - nói một ngôn ngữ khác

Phân tích info: Imagine Cook's surprise , when the natives of Hawaii greeted him in a familiar tongue , one he had heard on virtually every mote of inhabited land he had visited.

=> Ta thấy có 'Cook's surprise' -> Ý nói Cook đã bất ngờ khi the Hawaii greeted him in a familiar tongue (một ngôn ngữ quen thuộc)

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2
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: Captain Cook depicted number of cultural aspects of Polynesians in his journal

=> Cook đã cho thấy số lượng khía cạnh văn hóa của Polynesians trong journal của ông





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Marveling at the ubiquity of this Pacific language and culture , he later wondered in his journal : "How shall we account for this Nation spreading itself so far over this Vast ocean?"

Xem full giải thích
3
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Y/N/NG thường đi theo thứ tự từ trên xuống, ta có thể dựa vào tên riêng của 'Spriggs' theo flow của bài đọc để xác định thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc connection và nắm main idea:

 1 What we have is a first- or second-generation site containing the graves of some of the Pacific's first explorers ," says Spriggs 

 2 It came to light only by luck.

>>> Ta có cụm 'came to light' -> Nếu bạn nào không biết thì dịch word-by-word cũng đoán được -> 'Ra ngoài ánh sáng' -> Khi khai quật hay đào được cái gì lên thì vật đó sẽ được ra ngoài và tiếp xúc với ánh sáng -> Hiểu là tìm thấy

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4
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào thông tin 'the Lapita' + con số '2000' , ta có thể dễ dàng khoanh vùng thông tin cần đọc

Tuy nhiên, câu này khá dễ sai, vì nếu chỉ Skim & Scan và thấy '2000 miles' + 'centuries' tương ứng với 'centenary'

=> Nhiều bạn sẽ vội chọn TRUE



Ở đây mình phải thật sự hiểu câu hỏi: The Lapita completed a journey of around 2,000 miles in a period less than a centenary.

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5
Yes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Along the way they  explored millions of square miles of unknown sea , discovering and colonizing scores of tropical islands

=> Người Lapita đã khám phá và lập thuộc địa - trên các tropical islands

=> Nói cách khác, họ là những cư dân đầu tiên ở đây

=> Chọn YES



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6
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Archaeologists were also thrilled to discover six complete Lapita pots ; before this, only four had ever been found.

=> Bài đọc chỉ nói các nhà khảo cổ vui discover được Lapita pots

=> Không hề có thông tin về công dụng trước đây ăn hoặc việc chúng được dùng để nấu ăn

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN



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7
No
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Với từ 'urn' ta dễ dàng locate được thông tin cần đọc



Ta có thể thấy sự mâu thuẫn giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc:

Câu hỏi: The urn - was plain - was without any decoration

Bài đọc: urn - with modeled birds arranged on the rim

=> Bài đọc nói urn có hình ảnh của 'birds' on the rim - không phải trơn và không có họa tiết

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8
rock
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Với title của đoạn summary là “Scientific Evidence found in Efate site” -> Ta tìm đoạn văn đề cập tới các chứng cứ tìm thấy ở Efate site



Trong câu đầu tiên của summary “Tests show the human remains and the charcoal found in the buried urn are from the start of the Lapita period.”

=> Ta có thể tìm thấy 'bones' (=human remains) + 'charcoal' ở câu thứ 2 đoạn F -> Bắt đầu đọc từ đó





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Xem full giải thích
9
teeth
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 A particularly intriguing clue comes from chemical tests on the teeth of several skeletons

=> Manh mối thú vị đến từ các thử nghiệm trên răng của các bộ xương

=> Với 'chemical tests' = 'examination'

=> Answer: teeth



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10
descendants
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng đọc simplify + connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 DNA teased from these ancient bones may also help answer one of the most puzzling questions

 3 This represents the best opportunity to find out who the Lapita actually were , where they came from , and who their closest descendants are today."

>>> Như các bạn thấy ta có thể lược bỏ những câu hỏi, như vậy thông tin cần đọc sẽ gọn hơn rất nhiều mà vẫn đủ ý

=> 1 + 2 : DNA lấy được từ xương người sẽ là cơ hội tốt nhất - để tìm ra - người Lapita là ai, đến từ đâu, và closest descendants của họ today là ai

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11
canoes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Hiểu câu hỏi: What did the Lapita travel in when they crossed the oceans?

=> Đáp án cần điền là danh từ - loại phương tiện người Lapita dùng để vượt biển





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 the Lapita had canoes that were capable of ocean voyages , and they  had the ability to sail them

Xem full giải thích
12
trade winds
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'Irwin's view' ta dễ dàng khoanh vùng được đáp án cần đọc



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: In Irwin's view, what would the Lapita have relied on to bring them fast back to the base?

=> Người Lapita đã dựa vào các gì để trở về trụ sở nhanh chóng

Phân tích info:

Xem full giải thích
13
seabirds and turtles
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Once out there, skilled seafarers would detect abundant leads to follow to land : seabirds and turtles

=> Khi ra khơi, các thủy thủ sẽ nhận thấy được những sự dẫn dắt từ seabirds and turtles để tới đất liền

=> Câu hỏi hỏi thẳng vào vấn đề - 'what sea creatures?'

=> Dễ dàng suy ra được đáp án là seabirds and turtles

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Passage 2

📖 Bài đọc passage 2

Does An IQ Test Prove Creativity?
Everyone has creativity, some a lot more than others. The development of humans, and possibly the universe, depends on it. Yet creativity is an elusive creature. What do we mean by it? What is going on in our brains when ideas form? Does it feel the same for artists and scientists? We asked writers and neuroscientists, pop stars and AI gurus to try to deconstruct the creative process-and learn how we can all ignite the spark within.
A
A. In the early 1970s, creativity was still seen as a type of intelligence. But when more subtle tests of IQ and creative skills were developed in the 1970s, particularly by the father of creativity testing, Paul Torrance, it became clear that the link was not so simple. Creative people are intelligent, in terms of IQ tests at least, but only averagely or just above. While it depends on the discipline, in general beyond a certain level IQ does not help boost creativity; it is necessary but not sufficient to make someone creative.
B
B. Because of the difficulty of studying the actual process, most early attempts to study creativity concentrated on personality. According to creativity specialist Mark Runco of California State University, Fullerton, the “creative personality” tends to place a high value on aesthetic qualities and to have broad interests, providing lots of resources to draw on and knowledge to recombine into novel solutions. “Creatives” have an attraction to complexity and an ability to handle conflict. They are also usually highly self-motivated, perhaps even a little obsessive. Less creative people, on the other hand, tend to become irritated if they cannot immediately fit all the pieces together. They are less tolerant of confusion. Creativity comes to those who wait, but only to those who are happy to do so in a bit of a fog.
C
C. But there may be a price to pay for having a creative personality. For centuries, a link has been made between creativity and mental illness.Psychiatrist Jamison of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, found that established artists are significantly more likely to have mood disorders. But she also suggests that a change of mood state might be the key to triggering a creative event, rather than the negative mood itself. Intelligence can help channel this thought style into great creativity, but when combined with emotional problems, lateral, divergent or open thinking can lead to mental illness instead.
D
D. Jordan Peterson, a psychologist at the University of Toronto, Canada, believes he has identified a mechanism that could help explain this. He says that the brains of creative people seem more open to incoming stimuli than less creative types. Our senses are continuously feeding a mass of information into our brains, which have to block or ignore most of it to save us from being snowed under. Peterson calls this process latent inhibition, and argues that people who have less of it, and who have a reasonably high IQ with a good working memory can juggle more of the data, and so may be open to more possibilities and ideas. The downside of extremely low latent inhibition may be a confused thought style that predisposes people to mental illness. So for Peterson, mental illness is not a prerequisite for creativity, but it shares some cognitive traits.
E
E. But what of the creative act itself? One of the first studies of the creative brain at work was by Colin Martindale, a psychologist from the University of Maine in Orono. Back in 1978, he used a network of scalp electrodes to record an electroencephalogram ,a record of the pattern of brain waves, as people made up stories. Creativity has two stages: inspiration and elaboration, each characterised by very different states of mind. While people were dreaming up their stories, he found their brains were surprisingly quiet. The dominant activity was alpha waves, indicating a very low level of cortical arousal: a relaxed state, as though the conscious mind was quiet while the brain was making connections behind the scenes. It's the same sort of brain activity as in some stages of sleep, dreaming or rest, which could explain why sleep and relaxation can help people be creative. However, when these quiet minded people were asked to work on their stories, the alpha wave activity dropped off and the brain became busier, revealing increased cortical arousal, more corralling of activity and more organised thinking. Strikingly, it was the people who showed the biggest difference in brain activity between the inspiration and development stages who produced the most creative storylines. Nothing in their background brain activity marked them as creative or uncreative. “It's as if the less creative person can't shift gear,” says Guy Claxton, a psychologist at the University of Bristol, UK. “Creativity requires different kinds of thinking. Very creative people move between these states intuitively.” Creativity, it seems, is about mental flexibility: perhaps not a two-step process, but a toggling between two states. In a later study, Martindale found that communication between the sides of the brain is also important.
F
F. Paul Howard-Jones, who works with Claxton at Bristol, believes he has found another aspect of creativity. He asked people to make up a story based on three words and scanned their brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In one trial, people were asked not to try too hard and just report the most obvious story suggested by the words. In another, they were asked to be inventive. He also varied the words so it was easier or harder to link them. As people tried harder and came up with more creative tales, there was a lot more activity in a particular prefrontal brain region on the right-hand side. These regions are probably important in monitoring for conflict, helping us to filter out many of of combining the words and allowing us to pull out just the desirable connections, Howard-Jones suggests. It shows that there is another side to creativity, he says. The story-making task, particularly when we are stretched, produces many options which we have to assess. So part of creativity is a conscious process of evaluating and analysing ideas. The test also shows that the more we try and are stretched, the more creative our minds can be.
G
G. And creativity need not always be a solitary, tortured affair, according to Teresa Amabile of Harvard Business School. Though there is a slight association between solitary writing or painting and negative moods or emotional disturbances, scientific creativity and workplace creativity seem much more likely to occur when people are positive and buoyant .In a decade-long study of real businesses, to be published soon, Amabile found that positive moods relate positively to creativity in organisations, and that the relationship is a simple linear one. Creative thought also improves people's moods, her team found, so the process is circular. Time pressures, financial pressures and hard-earned bonus schemes on the other hand, do not boost workplace creativity: internal motivation, not coercion, produces the best work.
H
H. Another often forgotten aspect of creativity is social. Vera John-Steiner of the University of New Mexico says that to be really creative you need strong social networks and trusting relationships, not just active neural networks. One vital characteristic of a highly creative person, she says, is that they have at least one other person in their life who doesn’t think they are completely nuts

❓ Câu hỏi passage 2

Question 14 - 17
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
14
High IQ guarantees better creative ability in one person than that who achieves an average score in an IQ test.
15
In a competitive society, individuals’ language proficiency is more important than other abilities.
16
A wider range of resources and knowledge can be integrated by more creative people into bringing about creative approaches.
17
A creative person not necessarily suffers more mental illness.
Question 18 - 22
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below.
List of Findings
A
Jamison
B
Jordan Peterson
C
Guy Claxton
D
Howard-Jone
E
Teresa Amabile
F
Vera John-Steiner
18
Instead of producing the negative mood, a shift of mood state might be the one important factor of inducing a creative thinking.
19
Where the more positive moods individuals achieve, there is higher creativity in organizations.
20
Good interpersonal relationship and trust contribute to a person with more creativity.
21
Creativity demands an ability that can easily change among different kinds of thinking.
22
Certain creative mind can be upgraded if we are put into more practice in assessing and processing ideas.
Question 23 - 26
Complete the summary paragraph described below.
Write the correct answer with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.
But what of the creative act itself? In 1978, Colin Martindale made records of pattern of brain waves as people made up stories by applying a system constituted of many 
23
 . The two phrases of creativity, such as 
24
 were found. While people were still planning their stories, their brains shows little active sign and the mental activity was showed a very relaxed state as the same sort of brain activity as in sleep, dreaming or rest. However, experiment proved the signal of 
25
 went down and the brain became busier, revealing increased cortical arousal, when these people who were in a laidback state were required to produce their stories. Strikingly, it was found the person who was perceived to have the greatest 
26
in brain activity between two stages, produced storylines with highest level of creativity.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 2

14
False
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: High IQ guarantees better creative ability in one person than that who achieves an average score in an IQ test.

=> Người có IQ cao hơn sẽ sáng tạo hơn người có IQ trung bình

Phân tích info: beyond a certain level IQ does not help boost creativity

=> High IQ không giúp tăng (boost) creativity

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15
Not Given
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: In a competitive society, individuals’ language proficiency is more important than other abilities.

=> Sự thông thạo ngôn ngữ thì quan trọng hơn các khả năng khác

>>> Vì thông tin của câu trước ở cuối đoạn A, ta đọc từ đoạn B trở đi

=> Tuy nhiên đọc hết cả đoạn cũng không thấynhắc tới 'language'

=> Chọn NOT GIVEN

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16
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'a wider range of resources and knowledge' ta có thể locate được thông tin



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

>>> Câu này dù có nhiều cụm paraphrase, nhưng cấu trúc câu được viết khác nhau nên nhiều bạn sẽ thấy khó hiểu

Simplify thông tin để tìm điểm tương đồng với câu hỏi:

 the “creative personality” ... providing lots of resources and knowledge to recombine into novel solutions. 

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17
True
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Xác định info: Ở câu cuối đoạn C có đề cập tới 'mental illness' -> Đây là câu chuyển đoạn -> Thông tin cần đọc ở đoạn D

>>> Ở đây nếu bạn nào hiểu từ 'prerequisite''a necessary requirement' thì có thể chọn được đáp án là TRUE ngay



>>> Tuy nhiên nếu không biết thì ta vẫn sẽ có cách suy luận khác nhé





Áp dụng đoc connection với Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

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18
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Dựa vào cụm 'a shift of mood state', ta dễ dàng locate được info





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 she also suggests that a change of mood state might be the key to triggering a creative event

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19
E
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Dựa vào các cụm exact paraphrasing, ta nhanh chóng locate được thông tin





Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Where the more positive moods individuals achieve , there is higher creativity in organizations

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20
F
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 Vera John-Steiner says that to be really creative you need strong social networks and trusting relationships

=> Vera John-Steiner nói để trở nên creative, bạn cần 'strong social networks and trusting relationships'

=> Điều này đồng nghĩa với việc 'strong social networks and trusting relationships' góp phần vào việc tạo nên 'a person with creativity'

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21
C
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Creativity demands an ability that can easily change among different kinds of thinking. 

=> Creativity - đòi hỏi - khả năng thay đổi giữa những lối suy nghĩ khác nhau

Đọc connection:

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22
D
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Giải thích chi tiết



Tips: Đối với dạng Matching name này bạn nên xác định vị trí tên các đối tượng trước thì sẽ làm nhanh hơn nha



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Certain creative mind can be upgraded if we are put into more practice in assessing and processing ideas.

=> Óc sáng tạo - có thể được nâng cấp - nếu được đưa vào thực hành - trong việc đánh giá và xử lý ideas

Đọc connection giữa các câu:

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23
scalp electrodes
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào con số 1978 và tên riêng Colin Martindale cùng các cụm exact paraphrase, ta dễ dàng locate info



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 Colin Martindale 

 2 Back in 1978, he used a network of scalp electrodes to record an electroencephalogram , a record of the pattern of brain waves, as people made up stories. 

=> 1 + 2 : Colin dùng 'network of scalp electrodes' - để record electroencephalogram (a record of pattern of brain waves) - khi mọi người dựng chuyện

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24
inspiration and elaboration
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ở câu này rất dễ nhận ra:

Two phrases (= two stages) của creativity là : inspiration and elaboration

Answer: inspiration and elaboration



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25
alpha wave activity
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Phần thông tin của câu này tuy dài nhưng không khó, nếu đọc cấu trúc câu, bạn sẽ thấy ngay đề bài và câu hỏi có cấu trúc khá tương đồng

Câu hỏi: However, experiment proved the signal.... , when these people ... 

Bài đọc: However , when these quiet minded people.... , the alpha wave activity...

=> Vị trí các mệnh đề chỉ bị đảo với nhau thôi

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26
difference
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Giải thích chi tiết



Ở câu này ta có thể dựa vào những cụm paraphrase dễ nhận thấy như 'between two stages' + 'produced storylines with highest level of creativity' để khoanh vùng thông tin cần đọc



Tuy nhiên câu này rất dễ, chỉ cần so sánh phần thông tin xung quanh chỗ trống là đủ:

Câu hỏi: the greatest ____ in brain activity

Bài đọc: the biggest difference in brain activity

=> Với greatest = biggest

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Passage 3

📖 Bài đọc passage 3

Monkeys and Forests
AS AN EAST WIND blasts through a gap in the Cordillera de Tilaran, a rugged mountain range that splits northern Costa Rica in half, a female mantled howler monkey moves through the swaying trees of the forest canopy.
A
A. Ken Glander, a primatologist from Duke University, gazes into the canopy, tracking the female’s movements. Holding a dart gun, he waits with infinite patience for the right moment to shoot. With great care, Glander aims and fires. Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch in Guanacaste province. Other native primates -white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys - once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. Most of the surrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.
B
B. Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains, because they are leaf-eaters. They eat fruit, when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees. “Howlers can survive anyplace you have half a dozen trees, because their eating habits are so flexible,” he says. In forests, life is an arms race between trees and the myriad creatures that feed on leaves. Plants have evolved a variety of chemical defenses, ranging from bad-tasting tannins, which bind with plant-produced nutrients, rendering them indigestible, to deadly poisons, such as alkaloids and cyanide.
C
C. All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins. “We can detoxify a dangerous poison known as caffeine, which is deadly to a lot of animals:” Glander says. For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients. The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those at La Pacifica, are actually more howler friendly than those produced by the undisturbed, centuries-old trees that survive farther south, in the Amazon Basin. In younger forests, trees put most of their limited energy into growing wood, leaves and fruit, so they produce much lower levels of toxin than do well-established, old-growth trees.
D
D. The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys. Yet the forests there are young, most of them less than 50 years old. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests, when the trees were as young as 14 years. Howlers, larger and heavier than capuchins, need somewhat older trees, with limbs that can support their greater body weight. A working ranch at Hacienda La Pacifica also explain their population boom in Santa Rosa. “Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys for several reasons,” Fedigan explains. “They can live within a small home range, as long as the trees have the right food for them. Spider monkeys, on the other hand, occupy a huge home range, so they can’t make it in fragmented habitat.”
E
E. Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area. Capuchins don’t bear their first young until about 7 years old, and spider monkeys do so even later, but howlers give birth for the first time at about 3.5 years of age. Also, while a female spider monkey will have a baby about once every four years, well-fed howlers can produce an infant every two years.
F
F. The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.
G
G. Growing human population pressures in Central and South America have led to persistent destruction of forests. During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly. Alejandro Estrada, an ecologist at Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico, has been exploring how monkeys survive in a landscape increasingly shaped by humans. He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig, monkey pod and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop. The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut. This strange habitat, a hodgepodge of cultivated native and exotic plants, seems to support about as many monkeys as would a same-sized patch of wild forest. The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuable cacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them.
H
H. Estrada believes the monkeys bring underappreciated benefits to such farms, dispersing the seeds of fig and other shade trees and fertilizing the soil with feces. He points out that howler monkeys live in shade coffee and cacao plantations in Nicaragua and Costa Rica as well as in Mexico. Spider monkeys also forage in such plantations, though they need nearby areas of forest to survive in the long term. He hopes that farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys, which includes potential ecotourism projects. “Conservation is usually viewed as a conflict between agricultural practices and the need to preserve nature, ” Estrada says. “We ’re moving away from that vision and beginning to consider ways in which agricultural activities may become a tool for the conservation ofprimates in human-modified landscapes. ”

❓ Câu hỏi passage 3

Question 27 - 32
The reading Passage has eight paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
27
A reference of rate of reduction in forest habitats
28
An area where only one species of monkey survived while other two species vanished
29
A reason for howler monkey to choose new leaves as food over old ones
30
Mention to howler monkey’s diet and eating habits
31
A reference of asking farmers’ changing attitude toward wildlife
32
The advantage for howler monkey’s flexibility living in a segmented habitat
Question 33 - 35
Look at the following places and the list of descriptions below.
Match each description with the correct place, A-E.
List of Findings
A
Hacienda La Pacifica
B
Santa Rosa National Park
C
A cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico
D
Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico
E
Amazon Basin
33
A place where howler monkeys benefit to the local region’s agriculture
34
A place where it is the original home for all three native monkeys
35
A place where capuchins monkey comes for a better habitat
Question 36 - 40
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
The reasons why howler monkeys survive better in local region than other two species
Howlers live between in La Pacifica since they can feed themselves with leaves when 
36
 is not easily found
Howlers have better ability to alleviate the 
37
 , which old and young trees used to protect themselves
When compared to that of spider monkeys and capuchin monkeys, the 
38
rate of howlers is relatively faster (round for just every 2 years).
The monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes as the leaves howlers eat hold high content of 
39
 , which helps them to resist the continuous 
40
  in Guanacaste.

🔥 Đáp án & giải thích 3

27
G
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Hiểu câu hỏi: A reference of rate of reduction in forest habitats

=> Sự đề cập tới tốc độ thu hẹp của rừng

=> 'rate of reduction' -> liên tưởng tới số liệu nào mà được dùng để diễn tả tốc độ thu hẹp

=> Từ đó tìm được thông tin ở đoạn G





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28
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào tên 2 loài khỉ + từ 'vanished' , ta dễ dàng locate được thông tin ở đoạn A



Áp dụng Linearthinking để đọc connection giữa 2 câu

 1 This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica 

 2 Other native primate -white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys - once were common in this area, too, but vanished

>>> Đọc phần sub-heading bạn sẽ biết 'howler' ở đây là để chỉ một loài khỉ

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29
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + Imagine paraphrase

  • 'howler monkey to choose new leaves as food' -> tìm thông tin về việc howler monkey thích ăn lá mới hơn

  • 'old ones' -> tìm thông tin về các lá già mà chúng không thích ăn

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine + Xác định thông tin

  • 'howler monkey to choose new leaves as food' -> leaves that grow in regenerating forests + more howler friendly

  • 'old ones' -> those produced by the centuries-old trees

>>> Ở đây 'regenerating forest' là rừng thứ sinh (rừng đang phục hồi/ tái tạo lại) -> Ý nói cây ở đây tạo ra 'new leaves'

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30
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Dựa vào cụm 'diet and eating habits', ta tìm được rất nhiều thông tin liên quan tới ăn uống như 'leaf-eaters' + 'eat fruit' + 'their eating habits are so flexible'

=> Các thông tin này được tìm thấy ở đoạn B





Áp dụng Linearthinking để hiểu rõ hơn và confirm được đáp án

 1 Howlers are leaf-eaters. 

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31
H
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

'farmer's changing attitude toward wildlife' -> nghĩ tới việc nông dân nghĩ khác đi về động vật hoang dã,

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine + xác định info

'farmer's changing attitude toward wildlife' ->farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys

=> Thông tin trên đươc tìm thấy ở đoạn H

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32
D
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Giải thích chi tiết

Step 1: Hiểu câu hỏi + imagine paraphrase

  • 'howler monkey's flexibility' -> tìm các ví dụ/ minh chứng cho sự linh hoạt của howler monkey

  • 'segmented habitat' -> nghĩ về về môi trường sống rời rạc

Step 2: Tìm thứ imagine + xác định thông tin

  • 'howler monkey's flexibility' -> Howlers are more resilient + They can live within a small home range

  • 'segmented habitat' -> fragmented habitat

=> Thông tin trên tìm được ở đoạn D



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33
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: A place where howler monkeys benefit to the local region’s agriculture.

=> Một nơi mà howler monkeys có lợi từ nền nông nghiệp địa phương

Đọc connection:

 1 He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkey that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans : a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. 

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34
A
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Giải thích chi tiết



Với thông tin 'three native monkeys', ta dễ dàng locate được info



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica 

 2 Other native primates - white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys - once were common in this area , too 

=> 1 + 2 : Khu vực Hacienda La Pacifica là orginial home cho 3 loài khỉ

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35
B
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 1 The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park , about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica.

>>> Họ nhắc tới Hacienda La Pacifa chỉ để làm rõ vị trí của Santa Rosa National Park

 2 The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys.

 3 Yet the forests there are young

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36
fruit
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Howlers live between in La Pacifica since they can feed themselves with leaves when ____ is not easily found.

=> Đáp án là một danh từ (vì ở vị trí chủ ngữ) - cái gì đó khó tìm/ hiếm

Đọc connection:

 1 Howlers persist at La Pacifica because they are leaf-eaters 

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37
plant toxins
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: Howlers have better ability to alleviate the ____ , which old and young trees used to protect themselves 

=> Đáp án là một danh từ - thứ mà cây dùng để tự vệ và howlers có thể làm giảm nhẹ

Đọc connection:

 1 All primates, including humans have some ability to handle plant toxins. 

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38
birth
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Giải thích chi tiết



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

Hiểu câu hỏi: When compared to that of spider monkeys and capuchin monkeys , the ___ rate of howlers  is relatively faster ( round for just every 2 years).

=> Mình cần đọc xem, tốc độ (rate) gì của howlers thì nhanh hơn (2 năm/lần)

Đọc connection:

 1 Capuchins don’t bear their first young until about 7 years old , and spider monkeys do so even later , but howlers give birth for the first time at about 3.5 years of age. 

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39
water
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Giải thích chi tiết

Câu này rất dễ vì gần như không bị paraphrase

So sánh bài đọc và câu hỏi, ta dễ dàng rút ra được đáp án:

Câu hỏi: leaves howlers eat hold high content of water 

Bài đọc: The leaves howlers eat  hold plenty of water

>>> high content (lượng) of something = plenty of something

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40
drought
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Dựa vào tên riêng 'Guanacaste', ta dễ dàng xác định được thông tin cần đọc



Nhắc lại, ở câu trước nói howlers thường ăn lá cây chứa nhiều nước



Áp dụng Linearthinking để nắm main idea:

 This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.

=> Khả năng này cho phép howlers không bị ảnh hưởng nhiều bởi long, ongoing drought ở Guanacaste như capuchin and spider monkeys

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