Time Perspectives IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Listening Practice với Time Perspectives được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 5 - Test 3 - Section 4 kèm Answer key, list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc và Free PDF & Audio Transcript Download với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking
Time Perspectives IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

👂️ Audio and questions

00:00
Question 1 - 5
Complete the table below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
Time perspectives
Question 6 - 10
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
6
We are all present hedonists
A
at school
B
at birth
C
while eating and drinking
7
American boys drop out of school at a higher rate than girls because
A
they need to be in control of the way they learn
B
they play video games instead of doing school work
C
they are not as intelligent as girls
8
Present-orientated children
A
do not realise present actions can have negative future effects
B
are unable to learn lessons from past mistakes
C
know what could happen if they do something bad, but do it anyway
9
If American had an extra day per-week, they would spend it
A
working harder
B
building relationships
C
sharing family meals
10
Understanding how people think about time can help us
A
become more virtuous
B
work together better
C
identify careless or ambitious people

❓ Transcript

Time Perspectives
00:00
Today, I would like to share something with you about time. Particularly, I'll be looking at the way we think about time, and how these perspectives of time structure our life. Social psychologists have pointed out that there are six ways of thinking about time, which they regard as personal time zones.
The first two types of time zones are based in the past. Past positive thinkers usually spend a major part of their time looking back to the past, which means they are in a state of nostalgia, where they fancy remembering moments of happiness such as birthdays, marriages and important success time in their lives.
They are those who have the habit of keeping family records, books and photo albums. The kinds of people living in a past negative time zone are also absorbed by earlier times, but they concentrate on all the negative sides of a life picture such as regrets, failures or poor decisions. They spend plenty of time imagining what life could have been.
Then, it is those who live in the present. Present hedonists live their life in pleasure and immediate sensation. Their life motto should be having a good time and avoiding painful experiences.
Present fatalists live in the present as well; however, they think this moment is the product of circumstances entirely beyond their control, but it is more a fate. Whether it's poverty, religion or society itself, something prohibits fatalists from thinking that they do perform a role in changing their life outcomes. Life is simply what it is.
How about the future time zone? People who are sorted into future active group are those who do plans and go for their plans. They don't play but work, and resist temptation. They make decisions in terms of potential consequences, rather than experience itself.
The other type of future-oriented perspective is future fatalistic. This group of people holds a belief that there will be a certainty of life after death and certain kind of judgement day when they will be assessed on how virtuously they have had a life and what achievements they have had in their lives.
Okay, so much for all the types. You now may ask ‘in what ways are our lives influenced by these time zones?' Well, let's start at the beginning. When we were born, no exceptions, everyone was a present hedonist. All the initial needs and demands like being warm, secure, fed and watered were all from that time.
But formal education will change the way we think. Each one of us is taught to prevent focusing only on the moment and start to make estimates about the future. But you might be surprised, every nine seconds a child drops out of school in the US. More interestingly, there're much more boys dropping out than girls doing so.
We may easily draw a conclusion: 'boys aren't as intelligent as girls.' But the evidence doesn't support this. A recent survey indicates that when American boys reach the age of 21, they have spent roughly 10,000 hours on video games and also suggests that they'll never fit in the traditional classroom, because there is a stronger need for those boys to have a certain circumstance in which they are capable of managing their own learning environment.
Now, let's move on to how we do prevention education. All kinds of prevention education are usually targeted at the future time zone. We say 'don't smoke or you'll get cancer', 'get good grades or you won't get a good job.' But as for present-oriented kids, it doesn't make sense.
Though they do know the potentially detrimental consequences of their actions, they insist on how they behave because they're not living for the future. They are in the present right now. Logics won't be helping and it's no use reminding them of potential fallout from their decisions or previous judgement errors.
We have to get in their minds just as they're about to make a choice. How we value and use our time is greatly influenced by the time perspectives we have. When Americans come across a question about how busy they are, most of the interviewees usually report being busier than ever before.
They admit to sacrificing their relationships, personal time and good sleep during nights for their careers. But 20 years ago, 60% of Americans had sit-down dinners with their families, yet now the number dropped to 20%.
However, when they're asked what if there are 8 days in a week, they say 'Oh, that'll be fabulous'. They would spend that time working to achieve more. They're persistently trying to get to the future point of happiness.
So, it's of vital importance that we know how other people think about time. We tend to think: 'Oh, that person is really irresponsible,' or 'That guy is power hungry,' but often what we care about is not the fundamental personality differences, but only various approaches of thinking about time.
Rather than distinctions of characteristics, seeing these conflicts as differences in time perspectives can promote more effective cooperation between people and get the most out of each person's individual strengths.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
negative
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết

Loại từ cần điền là adjective



Khi nghe tới "the first two types of time zones are based in the past"

=> Chuẩn bị nói về 2 loại outlook có liên quan tới quá khứ => Biết đáp án sắp tới

Sau đó, người nói giới thiệu về Past positive thinkers

=> Ứng với positive trên đề bài

Xem full giải thích
2
pleasure
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tiếp đến mình nghe về hiện tại

=> BIết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Then, it is those who live in the present

Nghe thấy "present hedonists live their life in pleasure and immediate sensation"

=> Những hedonists (người có lối sống hưởng lạc) sống trong pleasure immediate sensation => Trên đề có sẵn sensation rồi, nên mình biết đáp án là pleasure => Đáp án: pleasure



Xem full giải thích
3
poverty
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem cuộc sống bị chi phối bởi cái gì (life is governed by ___; religious belief; social conditions)

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "present fatalistics live in the present as well" (chuẩn bị nói về feature của outlook này)

Nghe thấy "whether it's poverty, religion or society itself, something prohibits fatalists from thinking that they do perform a role in changing their life outcomes"

=> Poverty, Religion, hay Society là thứ làm fatalists tin rằng họ không thể tự kiểm soát cuộc sống của mình => Như trên đề thì đã có religious beliefssocial conditions, chỉ còn thiếu poverty => Đáp án: poverty



Xem full giải thích
4
active
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền là adjective, về outlook của con người trong tương lai

=> Đáp án sẽ tới sau "How about the future time zone"

Nghe thấy "people who are sorted into future active group are those who make plans and go for their plans. They don't play but work, and resist temptation"

=> Có những người được liệt vào active group, họ thích làm việc hơn là chơi và tránh các cám dỗ => Giống với miêu tả ở câu hỏi, mình lấy tính từ ra => Đáp án: active



Xem full giải thích
5
achievements
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về features & consequences của fatalists trong tương lai

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "The other type of future-oriented perspective is future fatalistic"

Nghe thấy "this group of people holds a belief that there will be a certainty of life after death"

=> Tương ứng với ý thứ nhất => Tiếp tục nghe

Mình nghe thấy "and certain kind of judgement day when they will be assessed on how virtuously they have led a life and what achievements they have made in their lives"

Xem full giải thích
6
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Nghe tới "..in what ways are our lives influenced by these time zones" (chuẩn bị nói vào chi tiết)

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới





Nghe thấy "when we were born, no exceptions, everyone was a present hedonist"

=> Lúc mới sinh ra thì ai cũng là present hedonist => Đáp án là B



Xem full giải thích
7
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem tại sao American boys bỏ học nhiều hơn girls

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "More interestingly, there's much more boys dropping out than girls"

Mình nghe được là "We may easily draw a conclusion: 'boys aren't as intelligent as girls'. But the evidence doesn't support this.

=> Không có bằng chứng cho thấy boys không thông minh bằng girls => Loại đáp án C



Nghe tiếp thấy "they'll never fit in the traditional classroom, because there is a stronger need for those boys to have a certain circumstance in which they are capable of managing their own learning environment"

Xem full giải thích
8
C
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về present-oriented children

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe '...are usually targeted as present-oriented kids."

Nghe thấy "though they do know the potentially detrimental consequences of their actions, they insist on how they behave because they're not living for the future"

=> Họ dư sức biết hành động hiện tại có thể dẫn tới hậu quả xấu ở tương lai, nhưng vẫn làm => Loại đáp án A

=> Chọn đáp án C


Xem full giải thích
9
A
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem nếu có thêm 1 ngày trong tuần, Americans sẽ dùng nó như thế nào

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe ".. what if there are 8 days in a week"

Nghe thấy "they would spend that time working to achieve more"

=> Sẽ dành ngày đó để tiếp tục làm việc để đạt được nhiều thành tích hơn, chứ không dùng để nghỉ ngơi => Chọn đáp án A



Xem full giải thích
10
B
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem hiểu cách mọi người nhìn nhận thời gian giúp chúng ta cái gì

Khi nghe tới "it's of vital importance that we know how other people think about time"

=> Sẽ giải thích tại sao biết cách mọi người nhìn nhận thời gian lại quan trọng => Biết đáp án sắp tới

Nghe thấy "what we care about is not the fundamental personality differences"

=> Thứ chúng ta quan tâm tới không phải là sự khác biệt về tính cách của mỗi người => Không quan tâm tới việc xác định xem ai có tính cách cẩu thả hay tham vọng => Loại đáp án C



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