The Role Of Sleep In Humans And Animals IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Listening Practice với The Role Of Sleep In Humans And Animals được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Actual Test 2 - Test 12 - Section 4 kèm Answer key, list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc và Free PDF & Audio Transcript Download với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking
The Role Of Sleep In Humans And Animals IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

👂️ Audio and questions

00:00
Question 1 - 10
Complete the notes below
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer
THE ROLE OF SLEEP IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS
Importance of sleep in animals
  • Compared to those without food, animals without sleep are more likely to suffer from

    1
    .

  • Sleep is necessary for all animals, whether they are reptiles,

    2
    or fish.

Differences in animals’ sleep and reasons for their ways of resting
  • Dolphins

    • Swim to the surface when sleeping, because they need to

      3
      .

  • Birds

    • Are constantly

      4
      in the presence of numerous predators.

  • Horses

    • Do most of their sleeping standing up.

    • Do occasionally take short naps lying down. Lying in one position for a long time could well injure a horse, because their

      5
      are delicate.

Potential problems encountering
  • Animals can also have

    6
    , the same as humans

Importance of sleep in humans
  • It helps us to organize our

    7
    of the day

  • It plays a key role in

    8
    

E.g.
  • Because of the similar sleeping pattern to that in humans,

    9
    are studied in order to increase our knowledge of human physiology.

  • Scientists choose to study the

    10
    of the fruit fly in order to know the function of the human gene and understand development  processes in humans.

❓ Transcript

The Role Of Sleep In Humans And Animals
00:00
Good morning, everyone. In today’s lecture, I’m going to talk about the role of sleep in humans and animals.
Of all the biological processes in the animal kingdom, sleep is perhaps the most important.
A human can survive for almost two weeks without eating, but did you know that one week without sleep can be fatal?
It’s even worse for animals, especially for those who must avoid predators.
Without sleep, an animal is much less capable of avoiding an attack - this is the case for all animals sleep, reasons for their ways of rest, and the potential problems they might encounter.
In marine life, sleep must be balanced with breathing.
For example, the dolphin must float to the surface as it sleeps in order to breathe.
Like other large sea mammals, they keep one eye open and one half of the brain awake at all times to maintain some amount of consciousness required to breathe and to watch out for possible threats.
They sleep with only one brain hemisphere in slow-wave sleep.
Birds also have unusual sleeping patterns, mostly due to being constantly on edge in the presence of numerous predators.
They usually sleep quite lightly - for example, Swainson’s Thrush, also called Olive-backed Thrush, is a medium-sized thrush that takes hundreds of naps during the day, each of which lasts just a few seconds.
While migratory birds tend to function will on micro-naps.
Horses, on the other hand, do most of their sleeping standing up.
Scientist think that horses develop their habit of sleeping upright as a defense mechanism, a way of protecting themselves against predators, and a standing position keeps a horse in a constant state of readiness to race away if danger should approach.
Also, horses do occasionally take short naps lying down.
Horses are heavy animals with big muscles, but their bones are surprisingly delicate, so lying in one position for a long time could well injure a horse.
Just like humans, animals can also have sleeping problems.
Dr. John Hedricks and Adrian Morrison from the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, determined that certain diseases were primarily associated with the sleep states in animals.
In their research they emphasised that because so much in this area still remains unclear, animal models were very important for studies of sleep disorders.
The physiology of sleep in animals is similar to that of humans.
But why do we humans sleep? Researchers and scientists believe it helps us organise our memories of the day - that sleep acts as a kind of filling system for the brain.
Without it, our thoughts become disorderly and confused, which leads to increased likelihood of accident and a tendency to say and do bizarre things.
Researchers also believe that sleep plays a key role in learning.
We sleep so that the brain can integrate new knowledge and form new associations.
Because of the similar sleeping pattern to that of humans, rats are often studied in order to increase our knowledge of human physiology.
In one study, rats were kept awake for almost two weeks, and their behavior was observed.
Researchers found the sleep-deprived rats could hardly remember anything of what they had been taught that day.
For example, one rat had been taught to recognise pictures of various Parisian landmarks in order to receive food - pressing a button below a picture of the Louvre would result in food being released and so forth.
However, when deprived of sleep, they would press buttons seemingly at random.
In addition to rats, the fruit fly, a small insect that feeds and breeds on spoiled fruit, also has been used as a model organism and thousands of scientists around the world work on it.
But why was the fruit fly chosen to be studied?
It was for practical reasons.
The most important one is that the relationship between fly and human genes is so close that the sequences of newly discovered human genes, including genes that show a susceptibility, can often be matched against their fly counterparts.
This provides an indication of the function of the human gene and could help in the development of effective drugs to help people with sleeping disorders.
Therefore, many scientists today choose to study the genetic structure of the fruit fly, which could make a particularly important contribution to the understanding of developmental processes in humans.
In conclusion, sleep is a necessary part of life not just for humans, but for the entire animal kingdom.
Now, I’d be happy to answer any questions you may have...

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
attack
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem nếu thiếu ngủ, động vật có khuynh hướng bị gì (likely to suffer from ____)

Tác giả đã nhấn mạnh “Without sleep, an animal is much less capable of avoiding an attack

=> Động vật sẽ dễ bị tấn công hơn khi thiếu ngủ => Likely to suffer from attack => Đáp án: attack



Xem full giải thích
2
mammals
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Thông tin cần điền là 1 loại động vật (song song với từ reptiles/ fish)

Sau khi nói về tầm quan trọng của giấc ngủ, tác giả nói “this is the case for all animals, whether they are reptiles, mammals or fish

=> Đáp án: mammals



Xem full giải thích
3
breathe
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về lí do dolphins bơi lên mặt nước khi ngủ (because they need to ___ )

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới "In marine life, sleep must be balanced with breathing" (marine life -> đề cập tới động vật dưới nước)





Nghe thấy “For example, the dolphin must float to the surface as it sleeps in order to breathe"

=> Cá heo cần phải bơi lên mặt nước khi ngủ vì chúng cần phải thở => Đáp án: breathe



Xem full giải thích
4
on edge
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem thói quen ngủ của “Bird” có liên quan tới yếu tố kẻ địch (in the presence of predators)

Tác giả nói "Birds also have unusual sleeping patterns, mostly due to being constantly on edge in the presence of numerous predators"

=> Birds có thói quen ngủ lạ vì liên tục bị rình rập bởi thú săn mồi => Đáp án: on edge



Xem full giải thích
5
bones
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem bộ phận nào của ngựa nếu nằm lâu sẽ bị chấn thương

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "Horses do occasionally take short naps lying down"

Nhưng “Horses are heavy animals with big muscles, but their bones are surprisingly delicate, so lying in one position for a long time could well injure a horse.”

=> Ngựa chỉ có thể nằm xuống trong thời gian ngắn vì xương chúng khá yếu, nên nằm lâu sẽ khiến chúng bị thương => Đáp án: bones



Xem full giải thích
6
sleeping problems
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Thông tin cần tìm là đặc điểm giống nhau giữa người và động vật

Tác giả nói “Just like humans, animals can also have sleeping problems.”

=> Giống như con người, động vật cũng gặp vấn đề về giấc ngủ => Đáp án: sleeping problems



Xem full giải thích
7
memories
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem giấc ngủ giúp mình organize cái gì

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe "But why do we humans sleep?"

Tác giả giải thích “Researchers and scientists believe it helps us organise our memories of the day

=> Giấc ngủ giúp chúng ta sắp xếp ký ức trong cả một ngày => Đáp án: memories



Xem full giải thích
8
learning
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về vai trò chính (key role) của giấc ngủ
Tác giả nói “Researchers also believe that sleep plays a key role in learning.”

=> Giấc ngủ đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc học tập => Đáp án: learning

Xem full giải thích
9
rats
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem loài nào có sleeping pattern giống con người

Tác giả đã nhấn mạnh "Because of the similar sleeping pattern to that of humans, rats are often studied in order to increase our knowledge of human physiology”

=> Chuột có thói ngủ giống con người nên được dùng để nghiên cứu để tăng kiến thức về sinh lý học loài người => Đáp án: rats



Xem full giải thích
10
genetic structure
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem cái gì của “fruit fly” được chọn để nghiên cứu (study the ___ of fruit fly)
Tác giả nói “Therefore, many scientists today choose to study the genetic structure of the fruit fly, which could make a particularly important contribution to the understanding of developmental processes in humans."

=> Nhiều nhà khoa học ngày nay chọn nghiên cứu cấu trúc di truyền của ruồi giấm => Đáp án: genetic structure



Xem full giải thích

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