The Extinction Of The Dodo Bird IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

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The Extinction Of The Dodo Bird IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

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00:00
Question 1 - 10
Complete the notes below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
THE EXTINCTION OF THE DODO BIRD
The dodo was a large flightless bird which used to inhabit the island of Mauritius.
History
  • 1507 - Portuguese ships transporting

    1
    stopped at the island to collect food and water.

  • 1638 - The Dutch established a

    2
    on the island.

  • They killed the dodo birds for their meat.

  • The last one was killed in 1681.

Description
  • The only record we have is written descriptions and pictures (possibly unreliable)

  • A Dutch painting suggests the dodo was very

    3
    .

  • The only remaining soft tissue is a dried

    4
    .

  • Recent studies of a dodo skeleton suggest the birds were capable of rapid

    5
    .

  • It's thought they were able to use their small wings to maintain

    6
    .

  • Their

    7
    was of average size.

  • Their sense of

    8
    enabled them to find food.

Reasons for extinction
  • Hunting was probably not the main cause.

  • Sailors brought dogs and monkeys.

  • 

    9
    also escaped onto the island and ate the birds' eggs.

  • The arrival of farming meant the

    10
    was destroyed.

❓ Transcript

The Extinction Of The Dodo Bird
00:00
One of the most famous cases of extinction is that of a bird known as the dodo.
In fact there's even a saying in English, 'as dead as the dodo', used to refer to something which no longer exists.
But for many centuries the dodo was alive and well, although it could only be found in one place, the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean.
It was a very large bird, about one metre tall, and over the centuries it had lost the ability to fly, but it survived happily under the trees that covered the island.
Then in the year 1507 the first Portuguese ships stopped at the island.
The sailors were carrying spices back to Europe, and found the island a convenient stopping place where they could stock up with food and water for the rest of the voyage, but they didn't settle on Mauritius.
However, in 1638 the Dutch arrived and set up a colony there.
These first human inhabitants of the island found the dodo birds a convenient source of meat, although not everyone liked the taste.
It's hard to get an accurate description of what the dodo actually looked like.
We do have some written records from sailors, and a few pictures, but we don't know how reliable these are.
The best-known picture is a Dutch painting in which the bird appears to be extremely fat, but this may not be accurate - an Indian painting done at the same time shows a much thinner bird.
Although attempts were made to preserve the bodies of some of the birds, no complete specimen survives.
In the early 17th century four dried parts of a bird were known to exist - of these, three have disappeared, so only one example of soft tissue from the dodo survives, a dodo head.
Bones have also been found, but there's only one complete skeleton in existence.
This single dodo skeleton has recently been the subject of scientific research which suggests that many of the earlier beliefs about dodos may have been incorrect.
For example, early accounts of the birds mention how slow and clumsy it was, but scientists now believe the bird's strong knee joints would have made it capable of movement which was not slow, but actually quite fast.
In fact, one 17th century sailor wrote that he found the birds hard to catch.
It's true that the dodo's small wings wouldn't have allowed it to leave the ground, but the scientists suggest that these were probably employed for balance while going over uneven ground.
Another group of scientists carried out analysis of the dodo's skull.
They found that the reports of the lack of intelligence of the dodo were not borne out by their research, which suggested the bird's brain was not small, but average in size.
In fact, in relation to its body size, it was similar to that of the pigeon, which is known to be a highly intelligent bird.
The researchers also found that the structure of the bird's skull suggested that one sense which was particularly well-developed was that of smell.
So the dodo may also have been particularly good at locating ripe fruit and other food in the island's thick vegetation.
So it looks as if the dodo was better able to survive and defend itself than was originally believed.
Yet less than 200 years after Europeans first arrived on the island, they had become extinct.
So what was the reason for this?
For a long time, it was believed that the dodos were hunted to extinction, but scientists now believe the situation was more complicated than this.
Another factor may have been the new species brought to the island by the sailors.
These included dogs, which would have been a threat to the dodos, and also monkeys, which ate the fruit that was the main part of the dodos' diet.
These were brought to the island deliberately, but the ships also brought another type of creature - rats, which came to land from the ships and rapidly overran the island.
These upset the ecology of the island, not just the dodos but other species too.
However, they were a particular danger to the dodos because they consumed their eggs, and since each dodo only laid one at a time, this probably had a devastating effect on populations.
However, we now think that probably the main cause of the birds' extinction was not the introduction of non-native species, but the introduction of agriculture.
This meant that the forest that had once covered all the island, and that had provided a perfect home for the dodo, was cut down so that crops such as sugar could be grown.
So although the dodo had survived for thousands of years, suddenly it was gone.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
spice(s)
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới 1507 và Portuguese ships là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy The sailors were carrying spices back to Europe, and found the island a convenient stopping place

=> các thủy thủ (trên tàu) đang vận chuyển gia vị về châu Âu, và thấy hòn đảo này là một điểm dừng chân tiện lợi

=> đáp án là spice(s)



Xem full giải thích
2
colony / settlement
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới 1638 là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy the Dutch arrived and set up a colony there

=> người Hà Lan tới và bắt đầu lập nghiệp trên đảo

=> đáp án là colony hoặc settlement



Xem full giải thích
3
fat
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: adjective



Nghe tới description of what the dodo actually looked like là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy a Dutch painting in which the bird appears to be extremely fat

=> một bức tranh của người Hà Lan cho thấy con chim này rất mập

=> đáp án là fat



Xem full giải thích
4
head
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe thấy four dried parts of a bird were known to exist - of these, three have disappeared, so only one example of soft tissue from the dodo survives, a dodo head

=> chỉ còn một mẫu vật của chim dodo còn tồn tại, là một cái đầu khô

=> bạn có thể nghe được một vài keyword trong đề như là soft tissue và only one example

=> đáp án là head



Xem full giải thích
5
movement
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới dodo skeleton là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy scientists now believe the bird's strong knee joints would have made it capable of movement which was not slow, but actually quite fast

=> các nhà khoa học bây giờ tin rằng chim dodo có khả năng di chuyển nhanh chứ không phải chậm (fast = rapid)

=> đáp án là movement



Xem full giải thích
6
balance / balancing
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới a dodo's small wings là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy It's true that the dodo's small wings wouldn't have allowed it to leave the ground, but the scientists suggest that these were probably employed for balance while going over uneven ground

=> cánh nhỏ của chim dodo không đủ để bay, nhưng các nhà khoa học cho rằng mục đích của cánh là để giữ thăng bằng khi đi trên mặt đất gồ ghề

=> đáp án là balance / balancing



Xem full giải thích
7
brain
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun, là một bộ phận cơ thể



Nghe thấy They found that the reports of the lack of intelligence of the dodo were not borne out by their research, which suggested the bird's brain was not small, but average in size

=> nghiên cứu cho thấy là não của chim dodo không nhỏ, nhưng ở mức trung bình

=> đáp án là brain



Xem full giải thích
8
smell
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun, do đi sau cụm từ sense of nên mình biết đây đang nói về một giác quan



Nghe tới one sense which was particularly well-developed was that of smell

=> khứu giác của dodo rất phát triển

=> cần nghe xem cái này có giúp nó find food không



Nghe tiếp thấy the dodo may also have been particularly good at locating ripe fruit and other food

Xem full giải thích
9
rats
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun, là một loại động vật



Nghe tới the ships also brought another type of creature - rats

=> đáp án có thể là rats, cần nghe xem chuột có ăn trứng của dodo không



Nghe thấy they (= rats) were a particular danger to the dodos because they consumed their eggs

=> chuột ăn mất trứng của dodo

Xem full giải thích
10
forest
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Loại từ cần điền: noun



Nghe tới the introduction of agriculture (= farming) là biết đáp án sắp tới



Nghe thấy the forest that had once covered all the island, and that had provided a perfect home for the dodo, was cut down

=> khu rừng bao phủ toàn bộ đảo bị tàn phá để có chỗ làm nông

=> dodo mất môi trường sống

Xem full giải thích

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