Researching The Origin Of Medieval Manuscripts IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Listening Practice với Researching The Origin Of Medieval Manuscripts được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Practice Test Plus 3 - Test 6 - Section 4 kèm Answer key, list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc và Free PDF & Audio Transcript Download với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking
Researching The Origin Of Medieval Manuscripts IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

👂️ Audio and questions

00:00
Question 1 - 10
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
Researching the origin of medieval manuscripts
Background
  • Medieval manuscripts - handwritten books produced between the fifth and fifteenth centuries

  • Origin of many manuscripts unknown until 2009; scientists started using DNA testing

Animal hides - two types
Parchment
Sheep skin: white in colour and
1

Greasy - writing can’t be erased so often used for
2

Vellum
Calf skin: most popular for prestigious work because you can get
3
lettering.
Preparation of hides
  • Treated in barrels of lime - where this was not available, skins were

    4
    (removed hair -> more flexible)

  • Stretched tight on a frame

  • Scraped to create same

    5
    

  • Vellum was

    6
    - for correct colour

Genetic testing - finding origins
Previously - analysed handwriting and
7
used by the writer
Now - using genetic data from ‘known manuscripts’ to create a
8

Uses of new data
Gives information on individual books
Shows the
9
of the book industry
Helps define
10
in medieval period

❓ Transcript

Researching The Origin Of Medieval Manuscripts
00:00
My presentation today is on how the science of genetics is being used to shed light on the origin of manuscripts - anything written by hand - produced in the medieval period ... that is ... the period between the fifth and fifteenth centuries AD.
As many of you know, thousands of medieval handwritten books still exist today. Some of them have a clear provenance, that is, we know exactly where and when they were written, but the origin of many manuscripts has been a complete mystery, that is, until two thousand and nine when geneticists started using DNA testing to shed light on their origins.
But before looking at the new research, I need to explain something about the way the manuscripts were produced - particularly what they were written on. Virtually all were written on treated animal skins and there were essentially two types.
The first was parchment, which is made of sheep skin. It has the quality of being very white but also being thin. It has a naturally greasy surface which meant it was hard to erase writing from it. This made it much sought after for court documents in medieval times.
The second type is vellum, which is calf skin. This was most often used for any very ‘high- status’ documents because it provided the best writing surface so scribes could achieve lettering of high quality.
So, once the animal hides had been chosen, they had to be prepared. Where the right materials were on hand, the skins were put into large barrels or vats of lime, where they were agitated or stirred frequently.
But if lime wasn’t available, then the hides were buried. Both these techniques were designed to cause the hair to slough off, and the skins to become gelatinous and therefore more flexible.
The next stage was to put the hides on stretcher frames and pull them very tight. While on the frame they were scraped with a moon-shaped knife in order to create a uniform thickness.
For parchment, that was the end of the process, but for vellum there was an additional stage where it was bleached, in order to achieve the desired colour.
So, what does all this preparation mean for the quest to identify the origins of ‘mystery’ manuscripts?
Well, until recently the only way historians and other academics were able to guess at origins was either through the analysis of the handwriting style, or from the dialect in which the piece was written. But these techniques have proven unreliable, for a number of reasons.
It was thus decided to try to look at the problem from a different angle ... to start from what is known, that is, the small number of manuscripts whose origins we do already know. Because these parchments and vellum are both made from animal hides, it was possible to subject them to DNA testing and to identify the genetic markers for the date and location of production
From this was created what is known as a ‘ Q38 baseline’. The next stage was to test the mystery manuscripts, finding their DNA characteristics and then making comparisons between the known and the mystery scripts.
Genetic similarities and differences enabled the scientists to gain more information about the origins of the many manuscripts we had known virtually nothing about up to that point.
Now you might ask - what are the potential uses of this new information? Well, obviously, it can shed light on the origin of individual books and manuscripts. But that’s not all. It can also shed light on the evolution of the whole of the manuscripts production industry in medieval times.
And because that was such a thriving business, involving very large-scale movements right across the globe, the new data, in turn, help historians establish which trade routes were in operation during the whole millennium.
Now if anyone has any questions ...

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
(very) thin
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về đặc điểm của sheep skin (sheepskin: white in colour and ___ )

=> Phần này sẽ bắt đầu từ ''Virtually all were written on treated animal skins and there were essentially two types.''

Đối tượng đầu tiên là parchment làm từ sheep skin, ''The first was parchment, which is made of sheep skin''

Sau đó người nói đưa thông tin là ''It has the quality of being very white but also being thin.''

=> Nó có hai đặc điểm là rất trắng và mỏng => Đáp án: thin



Xem full giải thích
2
court documents
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về đặc điểm của sheep skin (sheepskin: white in colour and ___ )

=> Phần này sẽ bắt đầu từ ''Virtually all were written on treated animal skins and there were essentially two types.''



Đối tượng đầu tiên là parchment làm từ sheep skin, ''The first was parchment, which is made of sheep skin''



Sau đó người nói đưa thông tin là ''It has the quality of being very white but also being thin.''

=> Nó có hai đặc điểm là rất trắng và mỏng

Xem full giải thích
3
high-quality
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem tại sao calf skin lại được dùng nhiều cho prestigious work

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''The second type is vellum, which is calf skin.''

Mình nghe được là ''This was most often used for any very ‘high- status’ documents because it provided the best writing surface so scribes could achieve lettering of high quality.''

=> Lý do nó được dùng là bởi scribes (người ghi chép) có thể viết chữ chất lượng cao => Đáp án là high-quality



Bạn tránh nhầm với từ high-status do đây là tính từ của documents.

Xem full giải thích
4
buried
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem nếu không có lime người ta sẽ làm gì



Khi nghe người nói bàn về cách chuẩn bị bằng lime, ''the skins were put into large barrels or vats of lime, where they were agitated or stirred frequently.''

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới

Sau đó, ''But if lime wasn’t available, then the hides were buried.''

=> Nếu không có lime, da động vật sẽ được chôn => Đáp án: buried.



Xem full giải thích
5
thickness
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem họ cạo da để làm gì (scraped to create same ___ )



Mình sẽ nghe thấy đáp án sau bước stretched on a tight frame, ''The next stage was to put the hides on stretcher frames and pull them very tight.'' (theo thú tự trong đề)





Theo người nói, ''While on the frame they were scraped with a moon-shaped knife in order to create a uniform thickness.''

=> Chúng được cạo để tạo độ dày giống nhau (uniform = same) => Đáp án: thickness.



Xem full giải thích
6
bleached/whitened
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Tiếp đến mình cần nghe về vellum



Người nói đưa thông tin là ''but for vellum there was an additional stage where it was bleached, in order to achieve the desired colour.''

=> Với vellum thì nó sẽ được bleached (tẩy trắng) để tạo màu => Đáp án: bleached



Xem full giải thích
7
dialect
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về phương pháp cũ để tìm ra nguồn gốc của manuscripts (analysed handwriting and ____ used by the writer)

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''...to identify the origins of 'mystery' manuscripts?"

Mình nghe được là ''The only way [...] was either through the analysis of the handwriting style, or from the dialect in which the piece was written.''

=> Cách duy nhất là phân tích chữ viết và phương ngữ (dialect) => Đáp án : dialect



Xem full giải thích
8
baseline
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Tiếp đến mình nghe về phương pháp hiện đại ( using genetic data from ‘known manuscripts’ to create a ___ )

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''It was thus decided to try to look at the problem from a different angle'' (1 góc nhìn khác -> cách mới)

Mình nghe được là, ''it was possible to subject them to DNA testing and to identify the genetic markers for the date and location of production.''

=> Đầu tiên, người nói bàn về phương pháp sử dụng mã gen

Mục đích của việc này là để ''From this was created what is known as a ‘baseline’''

Xem full giải thích
9
evolution
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem new data cho thấy cái gì của book industry

=> Biết đáp án sắp tới khi nghe ''Well, obviously, it can shed light on the origin of individual books and manuscripts.'' (ý tới trước đáp án)

Theo người nói, ''It can also shed light on the evolution of the whole of the manuscripts production industry in medieval times.''

=> Nó sẽ cho mình biết về sự tiến hóa của ngành công nghiệp sản xuất manuscript (=book industry) => Đáp án: evolution



Xem full giải thích
10
trade routes
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem new data giúp define cái gì



Mình nghe được là '' ... the new data, in turn, help historians establish which trade routes were in operation during the whole millennium.''

=> Dữ liệu mới giúp xác định các tuyến đường thương mại trong quá khứ => Đáp án: trade routes



Xem full giải thích

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