Engineering For Sustainable Development IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

Luyện tập đề IELTS Listening Practice với Engineering For Sustainable Development được lấy từ cuốn sách IELTS Practice Test Plus 3 - Test 7 - Section 4 kèm Answer key, list từ vựng IELTS cần học trong bài đọc và Free PDF & Audio Transcript Download với trải nghiệm thi IELTS trên máy và giải thích đáp án chi tiết bằng Linearthinking
Engineering For Sustainable Development IELTS Listening Answers With Audio, Transcript, And Explanation

👂️ Audio and questions

00:00
Question 1 - 10
Complete the notes below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
Engineering for sustainable development
The Greenhouse Project (Himalayan mountain region)
Problem
Short growing season because of high altitude and low
1

Fresh vegetables imported by lorry or by
2
, so are expensive
Need to use sunlight to prevent local plants from
3

Previous programmes to provide greenhouses were
4


New greenhouse
Meets criteria for sustainability
Simple and to build
5

Made mainly from local materials (mud or stone for the walls, wood and
6
for the roof)
Building and maintenance done by local craftsmen
Runs solely on
7
energy
Only families who have a suitable can own one

Design
Long side faces south
Strong polythene cover
Inner
8
are painted black or white
Social benefits
Owners’ status is improved
Rural
9
have greater opportunities
More children are educated
10


❓ Transcript

Engineering For Sustainable Development
00:00
Good afternoon. This is the first of a series of lectures I’ll be giving about engineering for sustainable development.
I’ll be presenting examples of engineering projects from a variety of contexts, and today I’m going to talk about a project to design a new kind of greenhouse for use in the Himalayan mountain regions.
First of all, I’ll tell you about the problem which was the context for this project. In the Himalayan mountains, fresh vegetables and other crops can only be grown outside for about ninety days, during the summer, because the altitude of the region is around three thousand five hundred metres, and because the rainfall is so low.
In winter, temperatures fall below minus twenty-five degrees celcius, so fresh vegetables have to be imported. They arrive by truck in summer or by air in winter, which makes them expensive.
Local people rely on dried leafy vegetables and stored root crops during the winter, and rarely eat fresh vegetables.
But despite the sub-zero temperatures, the skies over the region are cloudless, and there are over three hundred sunny days per year. So an engineering solution was needed, to exploit the sun’s energy and protect locally produced plants from freezing during winter.
And in fact, there had been programmes in the past to provide greenhouses, but these were unsuccessful. The greenhouses weren’t adapted for local conditions, so they tended to fall into disuse.
So, a few years ago, a project was initiated to design a better greenhouse, one which would meet the criteria for sustainability.
So, what are the criteria for sustainability? Well, first of all, the new greenhouse is designed to be relatively simple, so construction is cheap. Locally available materials are used wherever possible.
The walls are generally constructed of mud bricks, made locally, although in areas of high snow-fall more resilient walls of stone are needed. Rammed earth is also used.
The main roof is generally made from locally available poplar wood, with water- resistant local grass for the covering. In addition, the construction and maintenance of the greenhouse is done by local craftsmen. So local stone masons are employed to build the greenhouse walls, and specialised training is provided for them wherever necessary.
Then... the greenhouse is designed to run on solar power alone, there’s no supplementary heating. And lastly, families are selected to own one of the new greenhouses with great care. They have to have a Q38 site which is suitable for constructing it on.
They also have to be keen to make a success of using it, and also to share the produce with the wider community through sale or barter. Potential owners are taken to see existing greenhouses before they make a final decision about having one.
So, those are the features which make the project sustainable. And now I’ll briefly describe the design of the greenhouse. The greenhouses are orientated very carefully along an East- West axis, so that there’s a long South-facing side.
The transparent cover on the Southfacing side is made from a heavy-duty polythene, which should last for at least five years.
On the inside of the greenhouse, the walls are painted - the rear and west- facing walls are black, to improve heat absorption, but the east-facing wall is white to reflect the morning sunlight onto the crops inside.
Finally, there’s a door in the wall at one end, and vents are incorporated into the roof, the door and the wall at the other end, to enable control of humidity and prevent overheating.
I’ll turn now to the benefits which have resulted from the introduction of these new greenhouses. These benefits are of various kinds, but for now I’ll just mention the social benefits.
First of all, people who own a greenhouse gain social standing in their communities, because they provide vegetables for the wider community, for regular consumption as well as for festivals, and they also earn income.
Secondly, because in rural areas it is women who usually grow the food, the greenhouses have increased their opportunities. They bring the benefits of improved nutrition, and increased family income, from the sale of surplus produce.
And thirdly, as a result of their improved financial position, some families can now afford to educate their children for the first time.

🔥 Answer key (đáp án và giải thích)

1
rainfall
Rút gọn

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về nguyên nhân mà các mùa trồng trọt ngắn (Short growing season because of high altitude and low ___ )

Đầu tiên, người nói bàn về thời gian trồng trọt ngắn, ''... can only be grown outside for about ninety days, during the summer,''

Sau đó đưa ra hai lý do là ''because the altitude of the region is around three thousand five hundred metres, and because the rainfall is so low''

=> Lý do đầu là high altitude và hai là lượng mưa thấp. => Đáp án: rainfall



Xem full giải thích
2
air
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về cách vegetables được nhập (resh vegetables imported by lorry or by ____ ,so are expensive)

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''so fresh vegetables have to be imported.''

Mình nghe được là ''They arrive by truck in summer or by air in winter, which makes them expensive.''

=> Có hai cách để nhập vegetables là bằng xe tải vào mùa hè hoặc qua máy bay vào mùa đông. (truck = lorry) => Đáp án: air



Xem full giải thích
3
freezing
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết

Mình cần nghe xem phải dùng sunlight để làm gì



Mình nghe được là ''So an engineering solution was needed, to exploit the sun’s energy and protect locally produced plants from freezing during winter.''

=> Mục đích của việc tận dụng ánh nắng mặt trời là để giữ cho thực vật không bị đóng băng. (sunlight = sun’s energy, local plants = locally produced plants) => Đáp án: freezing



Xem full giải thích
4
unsuccessful
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về các dự án trong quá khứ (Previous programmes to provide greenhouses were ___ )

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''there had been programmes in the past ...''

Theo người nói, ''but these were unsuccessful''

=> Đáng tiếc là những dự án này không thành công => Đáp án: unsuccessful



Xem full giải thích
5
cheap
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Đây là tiêu chí đầu tiên cho sustainability

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Well, first of all, ...''

Mình nghe được là ''the new greenhouse is designed to be relatively simple, so construction is cheap.''

=> Thiết kế phải đơn giản để việc xây dựng rẻ => Đáp án: cheap



Xem full giải thích
6
grass
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe về các vật liệu local được dùng làm mái nhà (wood and ___ for the roof)

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''Locally available materials are used wherever possible.''

Đầu tiên được nghe những nguyên liệu làm tường ,''The walls are generally constructed of mud bricks, made locally, although in areas of high snow-fall more resilient walls of stone are needed.''

Sau đó mới đến mái nhà, ''The main roof is generally made from locally available poplar wood, with water- resistant local grass for the covering.''

=> Có hai vật liệu chính là gỗ và cỏ để làm lớp che phủ. => Đáp án: grass



Xem full giải thích
7
solar
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem greenhouse chạy bằng năng lượng gì là chính

=> Biêt đáp án sẽ tới khi nghe "Then..." (chuyển ý)

Theo người nói, ''Then... the greenhouse is designed to run on solar power alone, there’s no supplementary heating.''

=> Greenhouse chạy bằng năng lượng mặt trời. => Đáp án: solar



Xem full giải thích
8
site
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Điều kiện cuối cùng là về gia đình

=> Đáp án sẽ có sau ''And lastly, families are selected to ...''

Người nói bảo là ''They have to have a site which is suitable for constructing it on.''

=> Họ phải có một địa điểm phù hợp để thi công thì mới đươc sở hữu greenhouse => Đáp án là site

Xem full giải thích
9
walls
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mình cần nghe xem cái gì trong nhà được sơn trắng hoặc đen (inner ___ are painted black or white)

=> Phần này bắt đầu từ ''And now I’ll briefly describe the design of the greenhouse.''

Mình nghe được là ''the walls are painted - the rear and west-facing walls are black, to improve heat absorption, but the east-facing wall is white to reflect the morning sunlight onto the crops inside.''

=> Tường sẽ được sơn đen hoặc trắng tùy vào vị trí của nó => Đáp án: walls



Xem full giải thích
10
women
Mở rộng

Giải thích chi tiết



Mục cuối cùng là các benefits của greenhouse

=> Phần này bắt đầu từ ''I’ll turn now to the benefits which have resulted from the introduction of these new greenhouses.''

Mình sẽ cần nghe kỹ về benefit thứ hai => Đáp án sẽ có sau từ nối ''Secondly''

Theo người nói, ''Secondly, because in rural areas it is women who usually grow the food, the greenhouses have increased their opportunities.''

=> Phụ nữ sẽ có nhiều cơ hội từ greenhouses (increased là tăng, đồng nghĩa với greater) => Đáp án: women



Xem full giải thích

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