IELTS Listening Practice Test
‘Self-regulatory focus theory’ and leadership
Self-regulatory focus theory
People’s focus is to approach pleasure or avoid pain
Promotion goals focus on 
1
achievement/achievements


Prevention goals emphasise avoiding punishment
Factors that affect people’s focus
The Chronic Factor
  • comes from one’s 

    2
    personality
    

The 
3
situational

Factor
  • we are more likely to focus on promotion goals when with a

    4
    friend
    

  • we are more likely to focus on prevention goals with our boss

How people’s focus affects them
Promotion Focus: People think about an ideal version of themselves, their
5
aspirations/ambitions

and their gains.
Prevention Focus: People think about their ‘ought’ self and their obligations
Leaders
Leadership behaviour and
6
style

affects people’s focus
Transformational Leaders:
  • pay special attention to the 

    7
    development
     of their followers

  • passionately communicate a clear 

    8
    vision
    

  • inspire promotion focus in followers

Transactional Leaders:
  • create

    9
    structures
     to make expectations clear

  • emphasise the results of a mistake

  • inspire prevention focus in followers

Conclusion
Promotion Focus is good for jobs requiring 
10
innovation/innovations


Prevention Focus is good for work such as a surgeon
Leaders’ actions affect which focus people use

ĐÁP ÁN & GIẢI THÍCH CÂU 1

Giải thích chi tiết

smiley5 Xác định từ cần điền là noun

smiley5 Khi bạn nghe "He says that a person’s focus at any given time is to either approach pleasure or avoid pain" thì đây chính là ý đầu tiên trong phần "Self-regulatory focus theory" nên bạn biết đáp án câu này sẽ chuẩn bị vào.

check Sau đó bạn nghe "Promotion goals in different life situations emphasise achievement "

>> Mục tiêu thăng tiến trong các tình huống cuộc sống khác nhau nhấn mạnh về thành tích

>> Từ cần điền là "achievement/achievements" smiley18

Lưu ý
  • Nội dung giải thích được viết bởi DOL IELTS Đình Lực - Học Viện Tiếng Anh Tư Duy đầu tiên tại Việt Nam
  • Đề được viết bởi nhà xuất bản lớn gồm Cambridge và Oxford